u.s pop singer madona in picture

Madonna Picture

U.S. pop singer Madonna (R) greets anti-kidnapping campaigner French-Colombian Ingrid Betancourt while Argentina’s President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner (C) looks on at the Casa Rosada Presidential Palace in Buenos Aires December 2, 2008. Madonna is in Argentina as part of her “Sticky and Sweet” tour which begins on Wednesday.

(Photo by Photo Agency)
Madonna Picture

13 responses to “u.s pop singer madona in picture

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  8. doctor rashid kazmi

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

    KAZMI HOUSE

    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal

    PO=JHANGI

    Abbottabad PAKISTAN

    Tel;0092 300 9113675

    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response Summary;-

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

    KAZMI HOUSE

    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal

    PO=JHANGI

    Abbottabad PAKISTAN

    Tel;0092 300 9113675

    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    The trafficking in people for prostitution and forced labor is one of the fastest

    growing areas of international criminal activity and one that is of increasing concern

    to the United States and the international community. The overwhelming majority of

    those trafficked are women and children. More than 700,000 people are believed to

    be trafficked each year worldwide; some 50,000 to the United States. Trafficking is

    now considered the third largest source of profits for organized crime, behind only

    drugs and weapons, generating billions of dollars annually.

    Trafficking affects virtually every country in the world. The largest number of

    victims come from Asia, with over 225,000 victims each year from Southeast Asia

    and over 150,000 from South Asia. The former Soviet Union is now believed to be

    the largest new source of trafficking for prostitution and the sex industry, with over

    100,000 trafficked each year from that region. An additional 75,000 or more are

    trafficked from Central and Eastern Europe. Over 100,000 come from Latin America

    and the Caribbean, and over 50,000 victims are from Africa. Most of the victims are

    sent to Asia, the Middle East, Western Europe and North America.

    In 1998, the Clinton Administration and the 106th Congress launched a

    government-wide anti-trafficking strategy of (1) prevention, (2) protection and

    support for victims, and (3) prosecution of traffickers. It led to enactment of the

    Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-386).

    The Bush administration and the 107th Congress have continued to give priority

    to the trafficking problem focus attention on the problem. The State Department

    issued its first Congressionally mandated report on worldwide trafficking in July 2001.

    It categorized countries according to the efforts they were making to combat

    trafficking. Those countries that do not cooperate in the fight against trafficking

    could face U.S. sanctions, starting in 2003. In the 107th Congress, H.R. 2506, the

    Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations

    Act of 2002 includes at least $30 million to fight trafficking and assist victims.

    The United States and other countries have also initiated bilateral and multilateral

    programs and initiatives to combat trafficking. The United States is working with the

    European Union, the Group of Eight, the United Nations, the Organization for

    Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and a number of individual countries to

    combat trafficking in women and children. In 2000, the U.N. General Assembly

    adopted the Convention on Transnational Crime, including a Protocol on Trafficking.

    A Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on Sale of Children, Child

    Prostitution and Child Pornography was signed by the United States July 2000.

    Trafficking in Women and Children:

    The U.S. and International Response

    Definition

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

    KAZMI HOUSE

    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal

    PO=JHANGI

    Abbottabad PAKISTAN

    Tel;0092 300 9113675

    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    The U.S. Government definition of trafficking in persons encompasses: “All acts

    involved in the transport, harboring, or sale of persons within national or across

    international borders through coercion, force, kidnaping, deception or fraud, for

    purposes of placing persons in situations of forced labor or services, such as forced

    prostitution, domestic servitude, debt bondage or other slavery-like practices.”1

    Others have put forward slightly different definitions.2 In the case of minors, there

    is general agreement in the United States and much of the international community

    that the trafficking term applies whether a child was taken forcibly or voluntarily.

    Trafficking is distinguished from alien smuggling which involves the provision of a

    service, albeit illegal, to people who knowingly buy the service in order to get into a

    foreign country.

    Scope of the Problem Worldwide

    Trafficking in people, especiallywomen and children, for prostitution and forced

    labor is one of the fastest growing areas of international criminal activity and one that

    is of increasing concern to the U.S. Administration, Congress, and the international

    community. Although men are also victimized, the overwhelming majority of those

    trafficked are women and children. According to official estimates, over 700,000

    people are trafficked each year worldwide for forced labor, domestic servitude, or

    sexual exploitation.3 An estimated 50,000 persons are trafficked each year to the

    United States. Trafficking is now considered the third largest source of profits for

    organized crime, behind only drugs and guns, generating billions of dollars annually.

    Trafficking is a problem that affects virtually every country in the world.

    Generally, the flow of trafficking is from less developed countries to industrialized

    nations, including the United States, or toward neighboring countries with marginally

    1 [http://secretary.state.gov/www/picw/trafficking].

    2 Some religious groups, as well as feminist organizations, have campaigned to broaden the

    definition of trafficking to include all forms of prostitution, whether forced or voluntary, on

    grounds that prostitution is never truly voluntary and that traffickers will simply force their

    victims to claim to be acting voluntarily. However, others have rejected this broadened

    definition, arguing that it would impede the capacity of the international community to achieve

    consensus and act decisively against major traffickers.

    3 U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report, July 2001.

    [http://www.state.gov/g/inl/rls/tiprpt]

    higher standards of living. Since trafficking is an underground criminal enterprise,

    there are no precise statistics on the extent of the problem and estimates are

    unreliable. But even using conservative estimates, the scope of the problem is

    enormous, involving more than 700,000 victims per year. The largest number of

    victims trafficked internationally still come from Asia, with over 225,000 victims each

    year believed to be coming from Southeast Asia and over 150,000 from South Asia.

    The former Soviet Union is now believed to be the largest new source of trafficking

    for prostitution and the sex industry, with over 100,000 trafficked each year from that

    region. An additional 75,000 or more are trafficked from Eastern Europe. Over

    100,000 come from Latin America and the Caribbean, and over 50,000 victims are

    from Africa. Most of the victims are sent to Asia, the Middle East, Western Europe

    and North America. They usually end up in large cities, vacation and tourist areas,

    or near military bases, where the demand is highest.4

    Causes of Rise in Trafficking

    The reasons for the increase in trafficking are many. In general, the criminal

    business feeds on poverty, despair, war, crisis, and ignorance. The globalization of the

    world economy has increased the movement of people across borders, legally and

    illegally, especially from poorer to wealthier countries. International organized crime

    has taken advantage of the freer flow of people, money, goods and services to extend

    its own international reach.

    Other contributing factors include:

    ! the continuing subordination of women in many societies, as

    reflected in economic, educational, and work opportunity disparities

    between men and women. Many societies still favor sons and view

    girls as an economic burden. Desperate families in some of the most

    impoverished countries sell their daughters to brothels or traffickers

    for the immediate payoff and to avoid having to pay the dowery to

    marry off daughters;

    ! the hardship and economic dislocations caused by the transition

    following the collapse of Communism in the former Soviet Union

    and Eastern Europe, as well as the wars in the former Yugoslavia.

    The lack of opportunity and the eagerness for a better life abroad

    have made many women and girls especially vulnerable to

    entrapment by traffickers. With the weakening of law enforcement

    in post-Communist societies, criminal organizations have grown and

    established themselves in the lucrative business of international

    trafficking;

    ! the high demand, worldwide, for trafficked women and children for

    sex tourism, sex workers, cheap sweatshop labor, and domestic

    workers. Traffickers are encouraged by large tax-free profits and

    continuing income from the same victims at very low risk;
    4 These figures come from a variety of sources cited specifically under regional trends.

    ! The inadequacy of laws and law enforcement in most origin, transit,

    and destination countries, hampers efforts to fight trafficking. Even

    in the United States, more effective legal remedies are only now

    being considered. Prostitution is legal or tolerated in many

    countries, and widespread in most. When authorities do crack down,

    it is usually against prostitutes, themselves. Penalties for trafficking

    humans for sexual exploitation are often relatively minor compared

    with those for other criminal activities like drug and gun trafficking.

    ! The priority placed on stemming illegal immigration in many

    countries, including the United States, has resulted in treatment of

    trafficking cases as a problem of illegal immigration, thus treating

    victims as criminals. When police raid brothels, women are often

    detained and punished, subjected to human rights abuses in jail, and

    swiftly deported. Few steps have been taken to provide support,

    health care, and access to justice. Few victims dare testify against the

    traffickers or those who hold them, fearing retribution for themselves

    and their families since most governments do not offer stays of

    deportation or adequate protection for witnesses.

    ! The disinterest and in some cases even complicity of governments is

    another big problem. Many law-enforcement agencies and

    governments ignore the plight of trafficking victims and downplay

    the scope of the trafficking problem. In some cases, police and other

    governmental authorities accept bribes and collude with traffickers

    by selling fake documentation, etc.5 In addition, local police often

    fear reprisals from criminal gangs so they find it easier to deny

    knowledge of trafficking. Many countries have no specific laws

    aimed at trafficking in humans.

    Traffickers and Their Victims

    Chinese, Asian, Mexican, Central American, Russian and other former Soviet

    Union gangs are among the major traffickers of people. Chinese and Vietnamese

    Triads, the Japanese Yakuza, South American drug cartels, the Italian mafia, and

    Russian gangs increasingly interact with local networks to provide transportation, safe

    houses, local contacts, and documentation.

    Traffickers acquire their victims in a number of ways. Sometimes women are

    kidnaped outright in one country and taken forcibly to another. In other cases,

    victims are lured with job offers. Traffickers entice victims to migrate voluntarily with

    false promises of good paying jobs in foreign countries as au pairs, models, dancers,

    domestic workers, etc. Traffickers advertise these phony jobs, as well as marriage

    5 For instance, according to Global Survival Network, anNGOgroup, Russian traffickers can

    obtain false documentation in order to enable a minor to travel to destination countries to work

    as a prostitute from corrupt officials in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for approximately

    $800.

    ! The inadequacy of laws and law enforcement in most origin, transit,

    and destination countries, hampers efforts to fight trafficking. Even

    in the United States, more effective legal remedies are only now

    being considered. Prostitution is legal or tolerated in many

    countries, and widespread in most. When authorities do crack down,

    it is usually against prostitutes, themselves. Penalties for trafficking

    humans for sexual exploitation are often relatively minor compared

    with those for other criminal activities like drug and gun trafficking.

    ! The priority placed on stemming illegal immigration in many

    countries, including the United States, has resulted in treatment of

    trafficking cases as a problem of illegal immigration, thus treating

    victims as criminals. When police raid brothels, women are often

    detained and punished, subjected to human rights abuses in jail, and

    swiftly deported. Few steps have been taken to provide support,

    health care, and access to justice. Few victims dare testify against the

    traffickers or those who hold them, fearing retribution for themselves

    and their families since most governments do not offer stays of

    deportation or adequate protection for witnesses.

    ! The disinterest and in some cases even complicity of governments is

    another big problem. Many law-enforcement agencies and

    governments ignore the plight of trafficking victims and downplay

    the scope of the trafficking problem. In some cases, police and other

    governmental authorities accept bribes and collude with traffickers

    by selling fake documentation, etc.5 In addition, local police often

    fear reprisals from criminal gangs so they find it easier to deny

    knowledge of trafficking. Many countries have no specific laws

    aimed at trafficking in humans.

    Traffickers and Their Victims

    Chinese, Asian, Mexican, Central American, Russian and other former Soviet

    Union gangs are among the major traffickers of people. Chinese and Vietnamese

    Triads, the Japanese Yakuza, South American drug cartels, the Italian mafia, and

    Russian gangs increasingly interact with local networks to provide transportation, safe

    houses, local contacts, and documentation.

    Traffickers acquire their victims in a number of ways. Sometimes women are

    kidnaped outright in one country and taken forcibly to another. In other cases,

    victims are lured with job offers. Traffickers entice victims to migrate voluntarily with

    false promises of good paying jobs in foreign countries as au pairs, models, dancers,

    domestic workers, etc. Traffickers advertise these phony jobs, as well as marriage

    6 The Coalition against Trafficking in Women (CATW), Trafficking in Women and

    Prostitution in Asia. The CATW is an international NGO and the Pacific.

    [http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/catw/]).

    opportunities abroad in local newspapers. Russian crime gangs reportedly use

    marriage agency databases and match-making parties to find victims. In some cases,

    traffickers approach women or their families directly with offers of well-paying jobs

    elsewhere. After providing transportation and false documents to get victims to their

    destination, they subsequently charge exorbitant fees for those services, creating lifetime

    debt bondage.

    While there is no single victim stereotype, a majority of trafficked women are

    under the age of 25, with many in their mid to late teens. The fear among customers

    of infection with HIV and AIDS has driven traffickers to recruit younger women and

    girls, some as young as seven, erroneously perceived by customers to be too young

    to have been infected.

    Trafficking victims are often subjected to cruel mental and physical abuse in

    order to keep them in servitude, including beating, rape, starvation, forced drug use,

    confinement, and seclusion. Once victims are brought into destination countries, their

    passports are often confiscated. Victims are forced to have sex, often unprotected,

    with large numbers of partners, and to work unsustainably long hours. Many victims

    suffer mental break-downs and are exposed to sexually-transmitted diseases, including

    HIV and AIDS. They are often denied medical care and those who become sick are

    sometimes even killed.

    Regional Trends

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

    KAZMI HOUSE

    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal

    PO=JHANGI

    Abbottabad PAKISTAN

    Tel;0092 300 9113675

    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Asia and the Pacific. An estimated 225,000 victims are trafficked from

    Southeast Asia annually according to the U.S. Department of State. The growth of

    sex tourism in this region is one of the main contributing factors. Large-scale child

    prostitution occurs in many countries. Thailand, Cambodia, and the Philippines are

    popular travel destinations for “sex tourists”, including pedophiles, from Europe,

    North America, Japan, and Australia.

    Japan is the largest market for Asian women trafficked for sex, where some

    150,000 non-Japanese women are involved. Half are from the Philippines and 40%

    are from Thailand.6 Victims are also trafficked in increasing numbers to newly

    industrializing countries and regions, including Taiwan, Malaysia, Hong-Kong, and

    Thailand. Cross-border trafficking is prevalent in the Mekong region of Thailand,

    Burma, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and the Southern Yunan province of China.

    Vietnamese women are trafficked to China and Cambodia. According to various

    NGO sources, hundreds of thousands of foreign women and children have been sold

    into the Thai sex industry since 1990, with most coming from Burma, Southern China,

    Laos, and Vietnam. East Asia, especially Japan, is also a destination for trafficked

    women from Russia and Eastern Europe.

    6 The Coalition against Trafficking in Women (CATW), Trafficking in Women and

    Prostitution in Asia. The CATW is an international NGO and the Pacific.

    [http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/catw/]).

    Victims from Southeast Asia, especially China, Burma, the Philippines, Thailand,

    Cambodia, and Vietnam, are also sent to Western Europe, the United States,

    Australia, and the Middle East.

    In South Asia, the U.S. Department of State estimates that some 150,000 victims

    are trafficked annually. The low status of women in some societies as well as the

    growth of sex tourism contribute significantly to trafficking in this region. Sri Lanka

    and India are the favored destinations of sex tourists from other parts of the world.

    Bangladesh and Nepal, the poorest countries in the region, are the main source

    countries. India and Pakistan are the key destination countries. Estimates of the

    number of Nepalese girls and young women lured or abducted to India for sexual

    exploitation each year ranges from 5,000 to 10,000. The total number of Nepalese

    working as prostitutes in India range from 40,000 to 200,000, according to women’s

    rights organization and NGOs. The total Indian prostitute population is estimated to

    be over 2 million. More than 15,000 women and children are believed to be trafficked

    out of Bangladesh every year. 7 Over 4,000 women and children from Bangladesh are

    trafficked to Pakistan each year. In total, more than 200,000 women are believed to

    have been trafficked to Pakistan. Also, according to Amnesty International, Afghan

    women have been sold into prostitution in Pakistan.

    Some 7,000 Nepalese women and children are trafficked for prostitution to the

    Asia Pacific area, especially Hong Kong.8 A non-government source reports that

    about 200,000 Bangladeshi women and children have been trafficked to the Middle

    East in the last 20 years. Some 20,000 Pakistani children are said to have been

    trafficked to the United Arab Emirates (UAE). India is a source, transit, and

    destination country, receiving women and children from Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan,

    Sri Lanka, and Pakistan and sending them to Europe and the Middle East.

    Australia has been a prime source of sex tourists in Asia. The Philippines,

    Thailand, South Korea, Sri Lanka and Hong Kong are some of the primary Asian

    destinations for organized sex tours from Australia. Indonesia and Taiwan are

    secondary destinations.9 Australians also travel to Europe and Latin America. To

    counterattack this problem, Australia has been active in review and introduction of

    extraterritorial legislation and public awareness campaigns aimed at travelers.10

    International criminal organizations traffic hundreds of Thai women yearly to

    Australia.11 Australia plans to introduce tougher laws including long jail terms to curb

    the increased trafficking of Asian women to Australia for prostitution.12

    7 Police estimates, The Hindu Online, [http://www.hinduonline.com/], February 19, 1998.

    8 CATW. Trafficking in Women and Prostitution in Asia.

    9 CATW -Asia Pacific, Trafficking in Women and Prostitution in the Asia Pacific.

    10 World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, Regional Profiles.

    11CATW- Asia Pacific, Trafficking in Women and Prostitution in the Asia Pacific, Gabriela,

    Statistics and the State of the Philippines, July 24, 1997.

    12 Maria Moscaritolo, “Australia takes aim at Asian sex slave trade,” Reuters, May 26, 1998.

    Europe.

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

    KAZMI HOUSE

    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal

    PO=JHANGI

    Abbottabad PAKISTAN

    Tel;0092 300 9113675

    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    The former Soviet Union and Central and Eastern Europe have

    replaced Asia as the main source of trafficked women to Western Europe. Victims

    come from Russia, Ukraine, and other East European countries. With the economic

    and political turmoil after the collapse of the Soviet Union, trafficking from the region

    has escalated from a minor problem before 1991 into a major crisis. As criminal

    organizations have grown, especially in Russia, they have gravitated to this lucrative

    business. Russian organizations now play a dominant role not just in the trafficking

    of Russian women but also women from throughout Eastern Europe. Russian

    organized crime groups and others including Albanian, Estonian, Chechen, Serb, and

    Italian groups are involved in human trafficking in Europe. Furthermore, Russian

    organized crime is starting to take over the sex industry in a number of West

    European countries. Russian criminal groups reportedly are also gaining control of

    prostitution in Israel, and parts of the United States.13

    The largest number of the more than 175,000 victims trafficked annually from

    the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe come from Russia and Ukraine. In

    addition, several Central and East European countries are reported to be source,

    receiving, and transit countries. The conflicts in Bosnia and Kosovo provided new

    opportunities for traffickers in the former Yugoslavia and the Balkans. Recently,

    traffickers have targeted refugee women who fled Kosovo. According to the

    Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children, Albanian traffickers have

    smuggled thousands of Kosovo women into Italy by boat for the sex trade.

    An estimated 70% of Russian and East European victims are believed to be sent

    to West European countries (especially Germany, Italy, France, Switzerland, the

    Netherlands, Greece, Austria, England). Another 15% are sent to the Middle East

    (especially Israel and Saudi Arabia) and the Far East (especially Japan and Thailand).

    About 5,000 or 3% are thought to be sent to the United States or Canada. The

    remainder are sent to Central European countries, especially Poland, Hungary, the

    Czech Republic.14

    Western European countries are also destination points for victims from other

    parts of the world, including Africa (Ghana, Nigeria, Morocco), Latin America

    (Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic), Southeast Asia (the Philippines,

    Thailand).15

    Middle East.

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

    KAZMI HOUSE

    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal

    PO=JHANGI

    Abbottabad PAKISTAN

    Tel;0092 300 9113675

    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    The sexual exploitation of women and children in the Middle

    East tends to involve the import of women from other regions. The exploitation of

    Middle Eastern women tends to have less of a commercial dimension.16

    13 Global Survival Network. An Expose of the Traffic in Women for Prostitution from the

    Newly Independent States. Washington, D.C., 1998, p. 5-10.

    14 Ibid.

    15 Europe national data, “Trafficking of Women to the European Union: Characteristics,

    Trends and Policy Issues,” European Conference on Trafficking in Women, (June 1996),

    IOM, May 7, 1996.

    16 World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, Regional Profiles.

    Women and children, mostly from Asia (Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia),

    are trafficked as prostitutes or brides to the Middle East (Saudi Arabia, The United

    Arab Emirates). Women from the former Soviet Republics are sent to Israel.

    According to the Israel Women’s Network, every year several hundred to 2000

    women from Russia and the former Soviet Union are brought to Israel by

    well-organized criminal groups. Israel has no specific law against trafficking and

    prostitution is not illegal.17

    Latin America and the Caribbean.

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

    KAZMI HOUSE

    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal

    PO=JHANGI

    Abbottabad PAKISTAN

    Tel;0092 300 9113675

    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Estimate of the number of Latin

    American and Caribbean women and children trafficked for sexual exploitation each

    year is over 100,000, according to the U.S. Department of State. Impoverished

    children are particularly vulnerable to trafficking for prostitution. The Organization

    of American States estimates that more than 2 million children are being sexually

    exploited in Latin America.

    The presence of sex tourism from Europe, North America, and Australia has

    significantly contributed to the trafficking of women and children. A growing number

    of sex tourists are going to Latin America, partly as a result of recent restrictions

    placed on sex tourism in Thailand, Sri Lanka, and other Asian countries.18 Favored

    sex tourism destinations are Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Honduras,

    Costa Rica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Argentina.

    Brazil has one of the worst child prostitution problems in the world.19 More than

    50,000 women from the Dominican Republic reportedly have been trafficked abroad.

    Victims from Latin America and the Caribbean are trafficked to Western Europe

    and the United States. The Central American countries and Mexico are also transit

    countries for trafficking to the United States.

    Africa.

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

    KAZMI HOUSE

    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal

    PO=JHANGI

    Abbottabad PAKISTAN

    Tel;0092 300 9113675

    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    In Africa, over 50,000 victims are believed to be trafficked annually

    according to the U.S. Department of State, although the extent of trafficking is not

    well documented. Like elsewhere, poverty and the low status of women are major

    contributing factors. In addition, wars and civil strife engulfing countries like Sudan

    and Rwanda, as well as the indifference of some governments make women and

    children vulnerable to trafficking.20

    Trafficking in children for labor is a serious problem in Togo and Benin as well

    as Botswana, Zaire, Somalia, Ethiopia, Zambia, Nigeria, Algeria. Victims are

    17 Michael Specter, “Traffickers’ New Cargo: Naive Slavic Women,” New York Times,

    January 11, 1998.

    18 Casa Alianza/Covenant House Latin America, “Casa Alianza Warns That Central America

    Is New Sex Tourism Destination,” November 17, 1997.

    19 Social Security Network, “Brazil spends $1.7mil on helping child prostitutes.” Reuters,

    June 12, 1998.

    20 John Eibner of Christian Solidarity International, Karin Davies, “Slavic Trade Thrives in

    Sudan,” Associated Press, February 7, 1998.

    trafficked to Nigeria, Gabon, Ghana, and South Africa. Africans, especially women

    from Nigeria are trafficked to Western Europe and the Middle East.

    Trafficking in the United States

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

    KAZMI HOUSE

    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal

    PO=JHANGI

    Abbottabad PAKISTAN

    Tel;0092 300 9113675

    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Som 50,000 women and children are trafficked to the United States each year,

    according to the most recent Department of State estimates.21 Most come from

    Southeast Asia and the former Soviet Union. About half of those are forced into

    sweatshop labor and domestic servitude. The rest are forced into prostitution and the

    sex industry, or in the case of young children, kidnaped and sold for adoption. While

    many victims come willingly, they are not aware of the terms and conditions they will

    face. Women trafficked to the United States most often wind up in the larger cities

    in New York, Florida, North Carolina, California, and Hawaii.22 But the problem is

    also migrating to smaller cities and suburbs. Russian crime groups are said to be

    actively involved in trafficking and the sex industry in the United States.

    The United States is also the major destination country for young children

    kidnaped and trafficked for adoption by childless couples unwilling to wait for a child

    through legitimate adoption procedures and agencies. The largest source country is

    Mexico. Mexican children over twelve years of age are kidnaped and trafficked to the

    United States for child prostitution.

    American men, along with Europeans and Australians, are reportedly the most

    numerous sex tourists in Central America (Costa Rica, Honduras), South East Asia

    (The Philippines, Thailand), and South Asia (India, Sri Lanka). Many companies

    operating in a number of large cities reportedly specialize in sex tours.

    As in many countries, existing U.S. laws are widely believed to be inadequate to

    deal with trafficking in women and children. Nor are there thought to be adequate

    laws and services to protect and assist victims.

    U.S. Policy

    The Clinton Administration.

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

    KAZMI HOUSE

    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal

    PO=JHANGI

    Abbottabad PAKISTAN

    Tel;0092 300 9113675

    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    The trafficking issue has been gaining

    attention in the United States and worldwide since the late 1990s. The problem was

    addressed as a priority by the Clinton Administration and the 106th Congress. As part

    of former President Clinton’s announced International Crime Control Strategy, an

    interagency working group was set up to address international crime implications of

    trafficking. On March 11, 1998, President Clinton issued a directive establishing a

    U.S. government-wide anti-trafficking strategy of (1) prevention, (2) protection and

    support for victims, and (3) prosecution of traffickers. The strategy, as announced,

    had strong domestic and international policy components:

    21 Testimony of Frank E. Loy, Undersecretary of State for Global Affairs, before the

    Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Senate Foreign Relations

    Committee, February 22, 2000.

    22 U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Consular Affairs, Fraud Digest, November/December,

    1997.

    In the area of prevention, the Administration outlined the need for

    programs to increase economic opportunities for potential victims

    and dissemination of information in other countries to increase public

    awareness of trafficking dangers and funding for more research on

    trafficking.

    ! In terms of victim protection and assistance, the Administration

    argued for legislation to provide shelter and the support services to

    victims who are in the country unlawfully and therefore presently

    ineligible for assistance. It pressed for creation of a humanitarian,

    non-immigrant visa classification to allow victims to receive

    temporary resident status so that they could receive assistance and

    help to prosecute traffickers. Also, support was sought for

    developing countries to protect and reintegrate trafficking victims

    once they were returned.

    ! As far as prosecution and enforcement, the Administration pressed

    for laws to more effectively go after traffickers and increase the

    penalties they can face. In addition, restitution for trafficked victims

    was sought in part by creating the possibility of bringing private civil

    lawsuits against traffickers. The Department of Justice called for

    laws that would expand the definition of involuntary servitude,

    criminalize a broader range of actions constituting involuntary

    servitude, and increase the penalties for placing people in involuntary

    servitude. Justice Department spokesmen also urged that

    prosecutors be give the capability to go after those who profit from

    trafficking, not just those directly involved in trafficking.23 They also

    called for amending immigration statutes to punish traffickers who

    entrap victims by taking their passports and identification from them.

    On the domestic side, a Workers’ Exploitation Task Force, chaired by the

    Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division and the Solicitor’s Office in the

    Department of Labor, was charged with investigating and prosecuting cases of

    exploitation and trafficking. In addition, the Department of Justice reviewed existing

    U.S. criminal laws and their use to see if they adequately dealt with the crime of

    trafficking.

    The Department of State funded the creation of a database on U.S. and

    international legislation on trafficking. An Interagency Council on Women formed

    by the Clinton Administration established a senior governmental working group on

    trafficking. The Council sponsored a meeting of governmental and non-government

    representatives from source countries, transit countries, and international

    organizations to call attention to the trafficking issue and to develop strategies for

    combating this problem. The Clinton Administration worked with Congress on what

    23 Testimony of William R. Yeomans, Chief of Staff of the Civil Rights Division, Department

    of Justice, before the Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Senate Foreign

    Relations Committee, April 4, 2000.

    Countries are ranked in three groups or tiers. Countries that are not listed either

    are not seen as having a significant trafficking problem as source, transit, or

    destination countries or there is insufficient information about their role.

    Tier I is made up of countries deemed by the State Department to have a serious

    trafficking problem but fully complying with the Act’s minimum standards for the

    elimination of trafficking.

    it considered urgently needed legislation to strengthen the tools available to fight

    trafficking at home and abroad. In particular, the Administration argued for

    legislation building on its framework of “prevention, protection, and prosecution” to

    strengthen tools available for the fight and to help advance the U.S. agenda on

    trafficking in other countries. The Administration also urged the enactment of

    legislation to encourage and support strong action by foreign governments and help

    the work of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in this area.

    The Bush Administration.

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

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    The Bush Administration and the 107th Congress

    have continued the anti-trafficking effort with strong bipartisan support. Attorney

    General John Ashcroft announced in March 2001 that the fight against trafficking

    would be a top priority for the Administration and that U.S. law enforcement

    agencies, including the FBI, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and the

    Justice Department’s Civil Rights Division would cooperate closely to upgrade their

    efforts to combat trafficking. The Justice Department also announced new guidelines

    for federal prosecutors to pursue trafficking cases.24

    On July 12, 2001, the State Department issued its first Annual Trafficking in

    Persons Report, mandated by Congress under P.L.106-386.25 On the same day, the

    State Department released a fact sheet outlining U.S. Government programs and

    initiatives against international trafficking in persons.26 At his press conference

    releasing the report, Secretary of State Colin Powell announced the formation of a

    new interagency task force on trafficking in persons. The task force would identify

    what more needs to be done “to safeguard the vulnerable, to punish the traffickers,

    to care for their victims, and to prevent future trafficking.” He stressed that the

    United States would work closely with other governments, non-governmental

    organizations and concerned people throughout the world to put an end to trafficking.

    The report rates countries according to whether they meet “minimum standards”

    with regard to their anti trafficking commitment and policies. Governments meeting

    “minimum standards” are defined in the Trafficking and Violence Protection Act

    of 2000 (P.L.106-386) as those that: (1) prohibit trafficking and punish acts of

    trafficking; (2) prescribe punishment commensurate with that for grave crimes, such

    as forcible sexual assault, for the knowing commission of trafficking in some of its

    most reprehensible forms (trafficking for sexual purposes, trafficking involving rape

    or kidnaping, or trafficking that causes a death); (3) prescribe punishment that is

    sufficiently stringent to deter, and that adequately reflects the offense’s heinous

    nature; and (4) make serious and sustained efforts to eliminate trafficking.

    24 Attorney General John Ashcroft’s news conference on March 27, 2001. See

    [http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/speeches/2001/032701workerexploitation.htm].

    25 See [http://www.state.gov/g/inl/rls/tiprpt/2001].

    26 See [http://www.state.gov/g/inl/rls/fs/2001/index.cfm?docid=4051]

    27 The Act also established criteria that should be considered as evidence of serious and

    sustained efforts to eliminate trafficking: These are whether a government (1) vigorously

    investigates and prosecutes acts of trafficking within its territory; (2) protects victims of

    trafficking, encourages victims’ assistance in investigation and prosecution, provides victims

    (Included are Austria, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy,

    The Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom)

    Tier 2 countries are those whose governments the State Department views as

    not fully complying with those standards but making “significant efforts to bring

    themselves into compliance.”

    (They include Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Fasso,

    Cambodia, Cameroon, China, Costa Rica, Cote d’Ivoire, Czech Republic,

    Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala,

    Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Japan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lithuania, Macedonia,

    Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Nepal, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Sierra

    Leone, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Thailand, Togo,

    Uganda, Ukraine, and Vietnam)

    Tier 3 are those countries whose governments the State Department deems as

    not fully complying with those standards and not making significant efforts to do so.

    (They include Albania, Bahrain, Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Burma, Democratic

    Republic of Congo, Gabon, Greece, Indonesia, Israel, Kazakhstan, Lebanon,

    Malaysia, Pakistan, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Sudan,

    Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and the Republic of Yugoslavia)

    P.L. 106-386 makes countries listed in Tier 3 (beginning with the 2003 State

    Department report) subject to sanctions, including termination of non-humanitarian,

    non-trade-related assistance and loss of U.S. support for assistance (except for

    humanitarian, trade-related, and certain development-related assistance) from

    with legal alternatives to their removal to countries where they would face retribution or

    hardship, and ensures that victims are not inappropriately penalized solely for unlawful acts

    as a direct result of being trafficked; (3) has adopted measures, such as public education, to

    prevent trafficking; (4) cooperates with other governments in investigating and prosecuting

    trafficking; (5) extradites persons charged with trafficking; (6) monitors immigration and

    emigration patterns for evidence of trafficking, and responds appropriately; and (7) vigorously

    investigates and prosecutes public officials who participate in trafficking, and takes all

    appropriate measures against such officials who condone trafficking.

    The Act also spells out three factors that the Department is to consider in determining

    whether a country is making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with these

    minimum standards. These considerations are: (1) the extent of trafficking in the country; (

    2) the extent of governmental noncompliance with the minimum standards, particularly the

    extent to which government officials have been complicit in trafficking; and (3) what measures

    are reasonable to bring the government into compliance with the minimum standards in light

    of the government’s resources and capabilities.

    28 U.S. Department of State. International Information Programs. Washington File, January

    24, 2002. (Website http://usinfo.state.gov)

    29 U.S. Department of State. International Information Programs. Washington File, February

    14, 2002. (Website http://usinfo.state.gov)

    international financial institutions, specifically the International Monetary Fund and

    multilateral development banks such as the World Bank. Sanctions may be waived by

    the President based on national interest.

    On January 24, 2002, U.S. Attorney General announced the implementation of

    a special “T” visa, as called for in P.L.106-386, for victims of trafficking in the United

    States who cooperate with law enforcement officials. Under the statute, victims who

    cooperate with law enforcement against their traffickers and would be likely to suffer

    severe harm if returned to their home countries may be granted permission to stay in

    the United States. After three years in T status, the victims are eligible to apply for

    permanent residency and for non-immigrant status for their spouses and children.28

    On February 13, 2002, President Bush signed an Executive Order establishing

    an Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. The Task

    Force was mandated by the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (P.L.106-

    386), includes the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Labor,

    the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Director of the Central Intelligence

    Agency, the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, and the

    Director of the Office of Management and Budget. Office of the National Security

    Advisor. The Task Force is charged with strengthening coordination among key

    agencies. The State Department Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Person

    was tasked with assisting the Interagency Task Force in implementing P.L. 106-386

    and Task Force initiatives.

    In addition to announcing the establishment of the Interagency Task Force, the

    State Department issued a fact sheet on February 14, 2002, detailing planned U.S.

    activities to stop trafficking in persons.29 The Departments of State and Justice were

    to establish a Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking in Persons Center to gather and

    disseminate information from intelligence and law enforcement. USAID was charged

    with developing partnerships between source and destination countries to combat

    trafficking. The Department of Justice was to institute training programs for federal

    prosecutors, Immigration and Naturalization Service personnel, and FBI agents in

    2002. The Department of Justice planned to seek sponsors in Congress for legislation

    to punish Americans engaging in ‘sex tourism” abroad with minors. The Department

    of Labor was to establish six training and support centers for women victims or at risk

    of trafficking in major cities of Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly

    Independent States. The Department of Health and Human Services was to launch

    a public awareness campaign to encourage trafficking victims to come forward.

    The International Response

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

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    The United States and other countries are also pursuing a number of bilateral and

    multilateral programs and initiatives to combat trafficking. The steps taken by the

    United States internationally include the following:

    28 U.S. Department of State. International Information Programs. Washington File, January

    24, 2002. (Website http://usinfo.state.gov)

    29 U.S. Department of State. International Information Programs. Washington File, February

    14, 2002. (Website http://usinfo.state.gov)

    30 Fact Sheet: US-EU Initiative to Prevent Trafficking in Women. USIS Washington File,

    December 5, 1997.

    ! The Departments of State and Justice are training foreign law

    enforcement and immigration officers to better identify and crackdown

    on traffickers and their victims at the border.

    ! U.S. embassies and consulates worldwide are working with other

    countries to stop international trafficking in women and children.

    The United States has expanded its program to heighten public

    awareness about trafficking in source countries, targeting the

    messages to potential victims.

    ! The United States is also working with the European Union, the

    Group of Eight, the United Nations, the Organization for Security

    and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the governments of Israel,

    Italy, Finland, and Ukraine, and other countries to combat trafficking

    in women and children.

    The United States and the European Union agreed on a joint initiative to combat

    trafficking in November 1997.30 U.S. and EU officials met in Luxembourg to launch

    a jointly funded initiative against trafficking in women from Russia and Eastern

    Europe. It is primarily an information campaign, warning potential victims and an

    education program for law enforcement, customs and consular officials to heighten

    their awareness of the problem. Pilot projects were launched in Poland by the EU and

    in Ukraine by the United States. If successful, the program could be expanded to

    other countries. The United States has initiated bilateral cooperation programs in

    Russia, other former Soviet Republics, Bosnia, Albania, Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary,

    Thailand and the Philippines to fight trafficking.

    At the OSCE Summit Meeting in Istanbul in November 1999, leaders of the 55

    OSCE member states from Europe, Central Asia, and North America, agreed to make

    combating trafficking in the OSCE area (where some 200,000 people are trafficked

    annually) a priority issue. A follow up meeting on trafficking was held in Vienna on

    June 19, 2000. The participating states agreed on steps to increase their efforts and

    better coordinate actions to fight the problem.

    The international community began meeting in 1999 to draft a Protocol to

    Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especiallyWomenand Children

    in conjunction with the U.N. Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime.

    The United States, along with Argentina, introduced the draft protocol in January

    1999. Negotiations were concluded in 2000 on a revised draft. On November 15,

    2000, the U.N. General Assembly adopted the Convention on Transnational Crime,

    including the Protocol on Trafficking. The Convention and Protocols formally signed

    in Palermo, Italy, in December 2000, were designed to enable countries to work

    together more closely against criminals engaged in cross-border crimes.

    The United States is party to two other international agreements that have been

    adopted to address aspects of trafficking in children. The International Labor

    30 Fact Sheet: US-EU Initiative to Prevent Trafficking in Women. USIS Washington File,

    December 5, 1997.

    31 See [http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/about/factsheet/facts23.htm].

    32 See [http://www.unicef.org/crc/crc.htm].

    33 On March 11, 1999, S. 600 was introduced by Senator Paul Wellstone (D-Minn.) and

    referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. An identical bill, H.R. 1238, was introduced

    in the House by Representative Louise Slaughter (D-N.Y.) The bills were entitled the

    International Trafficking of Women and Children Victim Protection Act of 1999.

    Subsequently, H.R. 1356 was introduced in the House by Representative Christopher Smith

    (R-N.J.) on March 25, 1999 and referred to several Committees. It was titled the Freedom

    From Sexual Trafficking Act of 1999.

    On October 27, 1999, Rep. Sam Gejdenson (D-CT ) introduced H.R. 3154, the

    “Comprehensive Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 1999.” Senator Paul D. Wellstone

    introduced an identical bill in the Senate, S. 1842. These bills had the support of the Clinton

    Administration as being in line with its own approach.

    Organization (ILO) Convention 182 concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action

    for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor was ratified by United States

    in December 1999.31 The Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on

    Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography was signed by the United

    States July 2000.32 As of January, 2002, the Protocol had been put in forces, signed

    by 88 countries and ratified by 16.

    The Organization of American States (OAS) has also placed the issue of

    trafficking on its agenda. In November 2002, its Inter-American Commission on

    Women is scheduled to meet in Washington to discuss trafficking in the Americas.

    Congressional Action

    106th Congress.

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

    KAZMI HOUSE

    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal

    PO=JHANGI

    Abbottabad PAKISTAN

    Tel;0092 300 9113675

    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    The 106th Congress took several legislative initiatives on the

    issue of trafficking in persons for sexual and other exploitation. The focus of bills

    paralleled the Clinton Administration’s framework of “prevention, protection, and

    prosecution. However, some of the congressional initiatives went beyond Clinton

    Administration recommendations in several areas, especially in calling for actions

    against governments that tolerate trafficking.

    Several bills on trafficking were introduced in the House and Senate in 1999 and

    2000.33 H.R. 3244, was introduced by Rep. Christopher Smith (R-NJ) on November

    8, 1999. A similar bill was sponsored in the Senate by Sam Brownback (R-KS). In

    conference, the bill was combined with the Violence against Women Act of 2000 and

    repackaged as the

    Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000,

    By;-

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    along with miscellaneous anti-crime and anti-terrorism provisions. The Conference

    Report H.Rept. 106-939 was agreed to by the House on October 6, 2000, by a vote

    of 371 to 1. The Senate agreed to the conference report by a vote of 95-0 on October

    11, 2000. President Clinton signed the bill into law on October 28, 2001 (P.L.106-

    386).

    Among its key provisions, P.L.106-386:

    31 See [http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/about/factsheet/facts23.htm].

    32 See [http://www.unicef.org/crc/crc.htm].

    33 On March 11, 1999, S. 600 was introduced by Senator Paul Wellstone (D-Minn.) and

    referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. An identical bill, H.R. 1238, was introduced

    in the House by Representative Louise Slaughter (D-N.Y.) The bills were entitled the

    International Trafficking of Women and Children Victim Protection Act of 1999.

    Subsequently, H.R. 1356 was introduced in the House by Representative Christopher Smith

    (R-N.J.) on March 25, 1999 and referred to several Committees. It was titled the Freedom

    From Sexual Trafficking Act of 1999.

    On October 27, 1999, Rep. Sam Gejdenson (D-CT ) introduced H.R. 3154, the

    “Comprehensive Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 1999.” Senator Paul D. Wellstone

    introduced an identical bill in the Senate, S. 1842. These bills had the support of the Clinton

    Administration as being in line with its own approach.

    Organization (ILO) Convention 182 concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action

    for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor was ratified by United States

    in December 1999.31 The Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on

    Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography was signed by the United

    States July 2000.32 As of January, 2002, the Protocol had been put in forces, signed

    by 88 countries and ratified by 16.

    The Organization of American States (OAS) has also placed the issue of

    trafficking on its agenda. In November 2002, its Inter-American Commission on

    Women is scheduled to meet in Washington to discuss trafficking in the Americas.

    Congressional Action

    106th Congress.

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

    KAZMI HOUSE

    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal

    PO=JHANGI

    Abbottabad PAKISTAN

    Tel;0092 300 9113675

    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    The 106th Congress took several legislative initiatives on the

    issue of trafficking in persons for sexual and other exploitation. The focus of bills

    paralleled the Clinton Administration’s framework of “prevention, protection, and

    prosecution. However, some of the congressional initiatives went beyond Clinton

    Administration recommendations in several areas, especially in calling for actions

    against governments that tolerate trafficking.

    Several bills on trafficking were introduced in the House and Senate in 1999 and

    2000.33 H.R. 3244, was introduced by Rep. Christopher Smith (R-NJ) on November

    8, 1999. A similar bill was sponsored in the Senate by Sam Brownback (R-KS). In

    conference, the bill was combined with the Violence against Women Act of 2000 and

    repackaged as the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000,

    along with miscellaneous anti-crime and anti-terrorism provisions. The Conference

    Report H.Rept. 106-939 was agreed to by the House on October 6, 2000, by a vote

    of 371 to 1. The Senate agreed to the conference report by a vote of 95-0 on October

    11, 2000. President Clinton signed the bill into law on October 28, 2001 (P.L.106-

    386).

    Among its key provisions, P.L.106-386:

    ! Directed the Secretary of State to provide an annual report by June

    1, listing countries that do and do not comply with minimum

    standards for the elimination of trafficking and to provide in his

    annual report on human rights information on a country-by-country

    basis describing the nature and extent of severe forms of trafficking

    in persons in each country and an assessment of the efforts by

    governments to combat trafficking;

    ! Called for establishing an Interagency Task Force to Monitor and

    Combat Trafficking, chaired by the Secretary of State, and

    authorized the Secretary to establish within the Department of State

    an Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking to assist the Task

    Force;

    ! Called for measures to enhance economic opportunity for potential

    victims of trafficking as a method to deter trafficking, to increase

    public awareness, particularly among potential victims, of the

    dangers of trafficking and the protections that are available for

    victims, and for the government to work with NGOs to combat

    trafficking;

    ! Established programs and initiatives in foreign countries to assist in

    the safe integration, reintegration, or resettlement of victims of

    trafficking and their children, as well as programs to provide

    assistance to victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons within

    the United States, without regard to such victims’ immigration status

    and to make such victims eligible, without regard to their

    immigration status, for any benefits that are otherwise available under

    the Crime Victims Fund;

    ! Provided protection and assistance for victims of severe forms of

    trafficking while in the United States;

    ! Amended the code to make funds derived from the sale of assets

    seized from and forfeited by trafficking available for victims

    assistance programs under this Act;

    ! Amended the Immigration and Nationality Act to allow the Attorney

    General to grant up to 5000 non-immigrant visas per year to certain

    victims of severe forms of trafficking who are in the United States

    and who would face a significant possibility of retribution or other

    harm if they were removed from the United States. In addition,

    amended the Act to adjust to lawful permanent resident the status of

    up to 5000 victims per year who have been in the United States

    continuously for three years since admission, who have remained of

    good moral character, who have not unreasonably refused to assist

    in trafficking investigations or prosecutions, and who would face a

    significant possibility of retribution or other harm if removed from

    the United States;

    ! Established minimum standards applicable to countries that have a

    significant trafficking problem. Urged such countries to prohibit

    severe forms of trafficking in persons, to punish such acts, and to

    make serious and sustained efforts to eliminate such trafficking;

    ! Provided for assistance to foreign countries for programs and

    activities designed to meet the minimum international standards for

    the elimination of trafficking;

    ! Withheld U.S. non-humanitarian assistance and instructed the U.S.

    executive director of each multilateral development bank and the

    International Monetary Fund to vote against non-humanitarian

    assistance to such countries that do not meet minimum standards

    against trafficking and are not making efforts to meet minimum

    standards, unless continued assistance is deemed to be in the U.S.

    national interest;

    ! Encouraged the President to compile and publish a list of foreign

    persons who play a significant role in a severe form of trafficking in

    persons. Also encouraged the President to impose sanctions under

    the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, including the

    freezing of assets located in the United States, and to exclude

    significant traffickers, and those who knowingly assist them, from

    entry into the United States; and

    ! Amended the U.S. Code to double the current maximumpenalties for

    peonage, enticement into slavery, and sale into involuntary servitude

    from 10 years to 20 years imprisonment and to add the possibility of

    life imprisonment for such violations resulting in death or involving

    kidnaping, aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill.

    In addition, the conference agreement (P.L. 106-429, Chapter 6, Sec.601) on

    the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs

    Appropriations Act of 2001 specified at least $1,350,000 for the Protection Project

    to study international trafficking, prostitution, slavery, debt bondage, and other abuses

    of women and children..

    107th Congress. The Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related

    Programs Appropriations Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-115; H.R. 2506). includes at least

    $30 million to fight trafficking and assist victims drawn from six different accounts.

    Under SEC. 584, Funding for Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, the House

    directed that of the amounts made available for development assistance, the Economic

    Support Fund, assistance for Eastern Europe and the Baltic states, assistance for the

    Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, International Narcotics control and

    law enforcement, and Migration and refugee assistance:

    (1) $10,000,000 shall be made available for prevention of trafficking in persons,

    as authorized by section 106 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000

    (division A of P.L. 106-386);

    (2) $10,000,000 shall be made available for the protection and assistance for

    victims of trafficking of persons, as authorized by section 107(a) of such Act; and

    (3) $10,000,000 shall be made available to assist foreign countries to meet

    minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, as authorized by section 134 of

    the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.

    The Foreign Operations bill also stipulated that of the funds appropriated for

    assistance to the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, not less than

    $1,500,000 should be available only to meet the health and other assistance needs of

    victims of trafficking in persons.

    Current Trafficking Issues

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    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

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    Abroad consensus seems to be shared in Congress and the policy community on

    the need for decisive action to curb trafficking. And the general framework of

    “prevention, protection, and prosecution” also has widespread support. Differences

    are still apparent over some of the details.

    How will the war on terrorism and the emphasis on homeland security

    affect the efforts to combat human trafficking?

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

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    After the terrorist attacks on the

    United States on September 11, 2001, there was some concern among those

    advocating strong policies counter human trafficking that momentum might be lost.

    The cost of homeland security and the war on terrorism could affect funding levels for

    many programs including those aimed at stopping trafficking. However,

    Administration and Congressional attention seem to have been refocused on the

    trafficking problem in early 2002.

    Should sanctions against foreign governments be used as a policy instrument to combat trafficking?

    By;-

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi

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    Most agree that extensive international

    cooperation will be needed to stop international trafficking and that both “carrots”

    and “sticks” may be needed to encourage other governments, including assisting

    governments in their efforts to curb trafficking. The Clinton Administration argued

    that sanctions are unnecessary and counterproductive since very few, if any,

    governments favor or support trafficking. Instead, it was argued, the focus should be

    on cooperation. P.L. 106-386 calls for sanctions against those countries that not only

    do not meet minimum standards against trafficking but that also are making no efforts

    to meet minimum standards. It gave the President broad waiver authority. In the

    Bush Administration, Secretary of State Powell has expressed concern in general that

    sanctions are an overused policy tool. How this view will influence current

    Administration policy on trafficking is not clear. The debate over this issue may

    intensify following the issuance of the first State Department Annual Report on

    Trafficking. The tier 3 list of non-cooperating countries includes a number of key

    U.S. allies and countries which are some of the largest recipients of U.S. assistance.

    In the “war on terrorism” announced by President Bush in September, 2001, the

    United States is depending on critical assistance from non-traditional allies which may

    not

  9. doctor rashid kazmi

    Major Earthquakes Of the World…………….By;- Doctor Rashid Kazmi 03009113675‏
    From: doctorkazmi@hotmail.com
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    To: Embassy & High commisions in Pakistan

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    Print Buy Email This Link Save More World Maps

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    An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor, or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes are recorded with a seismometer, also known as a seismograph. The moment magnitude (or the related and mostly obsolete Richter magnitude) of an earthquake is conventionally reported, with magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes being mostly imperceptible and magnitude 7 causing serious damage over large areas. Intensity of shaking is measured on the modified Mercalli scale.
    At the Earth’s surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacing the ground. When a large earthquake epicenter is located offshore, the seabed sometimes suffers sufficient displacement to cause a tsunami. The shaking in earthquakes can also trigger landslides and occasionally volcanic activity.
    In its most generic sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event — whether a natural phenomenon or an event caused by humans — that generates seismic waves. Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults, but also by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear experiments. An earthquake’s point of initial rupture is called its focus or hypocenter. The term epicenter refers to the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter.

    Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

    Global plate tectonic movement
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    Disclaimer : All efforts have been made to make this image accurate. However Compare Infobase Limited,its directors and employees do not own any responsibility for the correctness or authenticity of the same.

    Earthquakes have occurred on earth’s surface since times immemorial. Thousands and thousands of earthquakes happen every year however, most of which go unnoticed as they are either to weak on the Richter scale or happen in remotest of the areas. Earthquakes cause disasters and cause both loss of lives and property.

    May 22, 1960 witnessed the world’s strongest earthquake in Valdicvia, Chile. The earthquake with a magnitude of 9.5 on Richter scale caused 20,000 fatalities. World’s second strongest earthquake occurred on December 26, 2004 with a magnitude of 9.3 on Richter scale. Ocean floor of west Sumatra and Indonesia were the epicenter of this earthquake that caused over 300,000 causalities. This earthquake caused the disastrous tsunami in the Indian Ocean.

    On March 27, 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska faced the world’s third strongest earthquake. The earthquake measured 9.2 on Richter scale caused a great deal of damage in Anchorage. Kamchatka, 1952 having 9.0 magnitude and Off the Coast of Ecuador, 1906 having 8.8 magnitude, are the fourth and the fifth strongest earthquakes on the world till date.

    Major Earthquakes of the World map shows all the major earthquakes that have occurred in various parts of the world. Apart form depicting the places i.e. the epicenters of the earthquake, the map also shows the year of its occurrences and its magnitude on the Richter scale.

    Naturally occurring earthquakes

    Fault types
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    Tectonic earthquakes will occur anywhere within the earth where there is sufficient stored elastic strain energy to drive fracture propagation along a fault plane. In the case of transform or convergent type plate boundaries, which form the largest fault surfaces on earth, they will move past each other smoothly and aseismically only if there are no irregularities or asperities along the boundary that increase the frictional resistance. Most boundaries do have such asperities and this leads to a form of stick-slip behaviour. Once the boundary has locked, continued relative motion between the plates leads to increasing stress and therefore, stored strain energy in the volume around the fault surface. This continues until the stress has risen sufficiently to break through the asperity, suddenly allowing sliding over the locked portion of the fault, releasing the stored energy. This energy is released as a combination of radiated elastic strain seismic waves, frictional heating of the fault surface, and cracking of the rock, thus causing an earthquake. This process of gradual build-up of strain and stress punctuated by occasional sudden earthquake failure is referred to as the Elastic-rebound theory. It is estimated that only 10 percent or less of an earthquake’s total energy is radiated as seismic energy. Most of the earthquake’s energy is used to power the earthquake fracture growth or is converted into heat generated by friction. Therefore, earthquakes lower the Earth’s available elastic potential energy and raise its temperature, though these changes are negligible compared to the conductive and convective flow of heat out from the Earth’s deep interior.[1]

    Earthquake fault types
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    Main article: Fault (geology)
    There are three main types of fault that may cause an earthquake: normal, reverse (thrust) and strike-slip. Normal and reverse faulting are examples of dip-slip, where the displacement along the fault is in the direction of dip and movement on them involves a vertical component. Normal faults occur mainly in areas where the crust is being extended such as a divergent boundary. Reverse faults occur in areas where the crust is being shortened such as at a convergent boundary. Strike-slip faults are steep structures where the two sides of the fault slip horizontally past each other ; transform boundaries are a particular type of strike-slip fault. Many earthquakes are caused by movement on faults that have components of both dip-slip and strike-slip; this is known as oblique slip.

    Earthquakes away from plate boundaries
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    Where plate boundaries occur within continental lithosphere, deformation is spread out over a much larger area than the plate boundary itself. In the case of the San Andreas fault continental transform, many earthquakes occur away from the plate boundary and are related to strains developed within the broader zone of deformation caused by major irregularities in the fault trace (e.g. the “Big bend” region). The Northridge earthquake was associated with movement on a blind thrust within such a zone. Another example is the strongly oblique convergent plate boundary between the Arabian and Eurasian plates where it runs through the northwestern part of the Zagros mountains. The deformation associated with this plate boundary is partitioned into nearly pure thrust sense movements perpendicular to the boundary over a wide zone to the southwest and nearly pure strike-slip motion along the Main Recent Fault close to the actual plate boundary itself. This is demonstrated by earthquake focal mechanisms.[2]
    All tectonic plates have internal stress fields caused by their interactions with neighbouring plates and sedimentary loading or unloading (e.g. deglaciation). These stresses may be sufficient to cause failure along existing fault planes, giving rise to intraplate earthquakes.[3]

    Shallow-focus and deep-focus earthquakes
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    The majority of tectonic earthquakes originate at the ring of fire in depths not exceeding tens of kilometers. Earthquakes occurring at a depth of less than 70 km are classified as ‘shallow-focus’ earthquakes, while those with a focal-depth between 70 and 300 km are commonly termed ‘mid-focus’ or ‘intermediate-depth’ earthquakes. In subduction zones, where older and colder oceanic crust descends beneath another tectonic plate, deep-focus earthquakes may occur at much greater depths (ranging from 300 up to 700 kilometers).[4] These seismically active areas of subduction are known as Wadati-Benioff zones. Deep-focus earthquakes occur at a depth at which the subducted lithosphere should no longer be brittle, due to the high temperature and pressure. A possible mechanism for the generation of deep-focus earthquakes is faulting caused by olivine undergoing a phase transition into a spinel structure.[5]

    Earthquakes and volcanic activity
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    Earthquakes often occur in volcanic regions and are caused there, both by tectonic faults and the movement of magma in volcanoes. Such earthquakes can serve as an early warning of volcanic eruptions, like during the Mount St. Helens eruption of 1980.[6] Earthquake swarms can serve as markers for the location of the flowing magma throughout the volcanoes. These swarms can be recorded by seismometers and tiltimeters (a device which measures the ground slope) and used as sensors to predict imminent or upcoming eruptions.[7]

    Earthquake clusters
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    Most earthquakes form part of a sequence, related to each other in terms of location and time.[8] Most earthquake clusters consist of small tremors which cause little to no damage, but there is a theory that earthquakes can recur in a regular pattern.[9]

    Aftershocks
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    Main article: Aftershock
    An aftershock is an earthquake that occurs after a previous earthquake, the mainshock. An aftershock is in the same region of the main shock but always of a smaller magnitude. If an aftershock is larger than the main shock, the aftershock is redesignated as the main shock and the original main shock is redesignated as a foreshock. Aftershocks are formed as the crust around the displaced fault plane adjusts to the effects of the main shock.[8]

    Earthquake swarms

    February 2008 earthquake swarm near Mexicali
    Main article: Earthquake swarm
    Earthquake swarms are sequences of earthquakes striking in a specific area within a short period of time. They are different from earthquakes followed by a series of aftershocks by the fact that no single earthquake in the sequence is obviously the main shock, therefore none have notable higher magnitudes than the other. An example of an earthquake swarm is the 2004 activity at Yellowstone National Park.[10]

    Earthquake storms
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    Main article: Earthquake storm
    Sometimes a series of earthquakes occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where the earthquakes strike a fault in clusters, each triggered by the shaking or stress redistribution of the previous earthquakes. Similar to aftershocks but on adjacent segments of fault, these storms occur over the course of years, and with some of the later earthquakes as damaging as the early ones. Such a pattern was observed in the sequence of about a dozen earthquakes that struck the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey in the 20th century and has been inferred for older anomalous clusters of large earthquakes in the Middle East.[11][12]

    Size and frequency of occurrence
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    Minor earthquakes occur nearly constantly around the world in places like California and Alaska in the U.S., as well as in Guatemala. Chile, Peru, Indonesia, Iran, Pakistan, the Azores in Portugal, Turkey, New Zealand, Greece, Italy, and Japan, but earthquakes can occur almost anywhere, including New York City, London, and Australia.[13] Larger earthquakes occur less frequently, the relationship being exponential; for example, roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than magnitude 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. In the (low seismicity) United Kingdom, for example, it has been calculated that the average recurrences are: an earthquake of 3.7 – 4.6 every year, an earthquake of 4.7 – 5.5 every 10 years, and an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.[14] This is an example of the Gutenberg-Richter law.

    The Messina earthquake and tsunami took as many as 200,000 lives on December 28, 1908 in Sicily and Calabria.[15]
    The number of seismic stations has increased from about 350 in 1931 to many thousands today. As a result, many more earthquakes are reported than in the past, but this is because of the vast improvement in instrumentation, rather than an increase in the number of earthquakes. The USGS estimates that, since 1900, there have been an average of 18 major earthquakes (magnitude 7.0-7.9) and one great earthquake (magnitude 8.0 or greater) per year, and that this average has been relatively stable.[16] In recent years, the number of major earthquakes per year has decreased, although this is thought likely to be a statistical fluctuation rather than a systematic trend. More detailed statistics on the size and frequency of earthquakes is available from the USGS.[17]
    Most of the world’s earthquakes (90%, and 81% of the largest) take place in the 40,000-km-long, horseshoe-shaped zone called the circum-Pacific seismic belt, also known as the Pacific Ring of Fire, which for the most part bounds the Pacific Plate.[18][19] Massive earthquakes tend to occur along other plate boundaries, too, such as along the Himalayan Mountains.
    With the rapid growth of mega-cities such as Mexico City, Tokyo and Tehran, in areas of high seismic risk, some seismologists are warning that a single quake may claim the lives of up to 3 million people.[20]

    Induced seismicity
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    Main article: Induced seismicity
    While most earthquakes are caused by movement of the Earth’s tectonic plates, human activity can also produce earthquakes. Four main activities contribute to this phenomenon: constructing large dams and buildings, drilling and injecting liquid into wells, and by coal mining and oil drilling.[21] Perhaps the best known example is the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China’s Sichuan Province in May; this tremor resulted in 69,227 fatalities and is the 19th deadliest earthquake of all time. The Zipingpu Dam is believed to have fluctuated the pressure of the fault 1,650 feet (503 m) away; this pressure probably increased the power of the earthquake and accelerated the rate of movement for the fault.[22] The greatest earthquake in Australia’s history was also induced by humanity, through coal mining. The city of Newcastle was built over a large sector of coal mining areas. The earthquake was spawned from a fault which reactivated due to the millions of tonnes of rock removed in the mining process.[23]

    Measuring and locating earthquakes
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    Main article: Seismology
    Earthquakes can be recorded by seismometers up to great distances, because seismic waves travel through the whole Earth’s interior. The absolute magnitude of a quake is conventionally reported by numbers on the Moment magnitude scale (formerly Richter scale, magnitude 7 causing serious damage over large areas), whereas the felt magnitude is reported using the modified Mercalli scale (intensity II-XII).
    Every tremor produces different types of seismic waves which travel through rock with different velocities: the longitudinal P-waves (shock- or pressure waves), the transverse S-waves (both body waves) and several surface waves (Rayleigh and Love waves). The propagation velocity of the seismic waves ranges from approx. 3 km/s up to 13 km/s, depending on the density and elasticity of the medium. In the Earth’s interior the shock- or P waves travel much faster than the S waves (approx. relation 1.7 : 1). The differences in travel time from the epicentre to the observatory are a measure of the distance and can be used to image both sources of quakes and structures within the Earth. Also the depth of the hypocenter can be computed roughly.
    In solid rock P-waves travel at about 6 to 7 km per second; the velocity increases within the deep mantle to ~13 km/s. The velocity of S-waves ranges from 2–3 km/s in light sediments and 4–5 km/s in the Earth’s crust up to 7 km/s in the deep mantle. As a consequence, the first waves of a distant earth quake arrive at an observatory via the Earth’s mantle.
    Rule of thumb: On the average, the kilometer distance to the earthquake is the number of seconds between the P and S wave times 8 [1]. Slight deviations are caused by inhomogenities of subsurface structure. By such analyses of seismograms the Earth’s core was located in 1913 by Beno Gutenberg.

    Effects/impacts of earthquakes

    1755 copper engraving depicting Lisbon in ruins and in flames after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, which killed an estimated 60,000 people. A tsunami overwhelms the ships in the harbor.
    The effects of earthquakes include, but are not limited to, the following:

    Shaking and ground rupture
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    Shaking and ground rupture are the main effects created by earthquakes, principally resulting in more or less severe damage to buildings and other rigid structures. The severity of the local effects depends on the complex combination of the earthquake magnitude, the distance from the epicenter, and the local geological and geomorphological conditions, which may amplify or reduce wave propagation.[24] The ground-shaking is measured by ground acceleration.
    Specific local geological, geomorphological, and geostructural features can induce high levels of shaking on the ground surface even from low-intensity earthquakes. This effect is called site or local amplification. It is principally due to the transfer of the seismic motion from hard deep soils to soft superficial soils and to effects of seismic energy focalization owing to typical geometrical setting of the deposits.
    Ground rupture is a visible breaking and displacement of the Earth’s surface along the trace of the fault, which may be of the order of several metres in the case of major earthquakes. Ground rupture is a major risk for large engineering structures such as dams, bridges and nuclear power stations and requires careful mapping of existing faults to identify any likely to break the ground surface within the life of the structure.[25]

    Landslides and avalanches By;-
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    Main article: Landslide
    Earthquakes, along with severe storms, volcanic activity, coastal wave attack, and wildfires, can produce slope instability leading to landslides, a major geological hazard. Landslide danger may persist while emergency personnel are attempting rescue.[26]

    Fires

    Fires of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake
    Earthquakes can cause fires by damaging electrical power or gas lines. In the event of water mains rupturing and a loss of pressure, it may also become difficult to stop the spread of a fire once it has started. For example, more deaths in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake were caused by fire than by the earthquake itself.[27]

    Soil liquefaction
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    Main article: Soil liquefaction
    Soil liquefaction occurs when, because of the shaking, water-saturated granular material (such as sand) temporarily loses its strength and transforms from a solid to a liquid. Soil liquefaction may cause rigid structures, like buildings and bridges, to tilt or sink into the liquefied deposits. This can be a devastating effect of earthquakes. For example, in the 1964 Alaska earthquake, soil liquefaction caused many buildings to sink into the ground, eventually collapsing upon themselves.[28]

    Tsunami

    The tsunami of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
    Main article: Tsunami
    Tsunamis are long-wavelength, long-period sea waves produced by the sudden or abrupt movement of large volumes of water. In the open ocean the distance between wave crests can surpass 100 kilometers (62 miles), and the wave periods can vary from five minutes to one hour. Such tsunamis travel 600-800 kilometers per hour (373-497 miles per hour), depending on water depth. Large waves produced by an earthquake or a submarine landslide can overrun nearby coastal areas in a matter of minutes. Tsunamis can also travel thousands of kilometers across open ocean and wreak destruction on far shores hours after the earthquake that generated them.[29]
    Ordinarily, subduction earthquakes under magnitude 7.5 on the Richter scale do not cause tsunamis, although some instances of this have been recorded. Most destructive tsunamis are caused by earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 or more.[29]

    Floods
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    Main article: Flood
    A flood is an overflow of any amount of water that reaches land.[30] Floods occur usually when the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, exceeds the total capacity of the formation, and as a result some of the water flows or sits outside of the normal perimeter of the body. However, floods may be secondary effects of earthquakes, if dams are damaged. Earthquakes may cause landslips to dam rivers, which then collapse and cause floods.[31]
    The terrain below the Sarez Lake in Tajikistan is in danger of catastrophic flood if the landslide dam formed by the earthquake, known as the Usoi Dam, were to fail during a future earthquake. Impact projections suggest the flood could affect roughly 5 million people.[32]

    Tidal forces
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    Research work has shown a robust correlation between small tidally induced forces and non-volcanic tremor activity.[33][34][35][36]

    Human impacts

    Damaged infrastructure, one week after the 2007 Peru earthquake
    Earthquakes may lead to disease, lack of basic necessities, loss of life, higher insurance premiums, general property damage, road and bridge damage, and collapse or destabilization (potentially leading to future collapse) of buildings. Earthquakes can also precede volcanic eruptions, which cause further problems; for example, substantial crop damage, as in the “Year Without a Summer” (1816).[37]

    Major earthquakes
    Main article: List of earthquakes
    Preparation
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    In order to determine the likelihood of future seismic activity, geologists and other scientists examine the rock of an area to determine if the rock appears to be “strained”. Studying the faults of an area to study the buildup time it takes for the fault to build up stress sufficient for an earthquake also serves as an effective prediction technique.[38] Measurements of the amount of accumulated strain energy on the fault each year, time passed since the last major temblor, and the energy and power of the last earthquake are made.[38] Together the facts allow scientists to determine how much pressure it takes for the fault to generate an earthquake. Though this method is useful, it has only been implemented on California’s San Andreas Fault.[38]
    Today, there are ways to protect and prepare possible sites of earthquakes from severe damage, through the following processes: earthquake engineering, earthquake preparedness, household seismic safety, seismic retrofit (including special fasteners, materials, and techniques), seismic hazard, mitigation of seismic motion, and earthquake prediction. Seismic retrofitting is the modification of existing structures to make them more resistant to seismic activity, ground motion, or soil failure due to earthquakes. With better understanding of seismic demand on structures and with our recent experiences with large earthquakes near urban centers, the need of seismic retrofitting is well acknowledged. Prior to the introduction of modern seismic codes in the late 1960s for developed countries (US, Japan etc) and late 1970s for many other parts of the world (Turkey, China etc),[39], many structures were designed without adequate detailing and reinforcement for seismic protection. In view of the imminent problem, various research work has been carried out. Furthermore, state-of-the-art technical guidelines for seismic assessment, retrofit and rehabilitation have been published around the world – such as the ASCE-SEI 41 [40] and the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering (NZSEE)’s guidelines [41].

    History

    An image from a 1557 book
    Pre-Middle Ages
    From the lifetime of the Greek philosopher Anaxagoras in the 5th century BCE to the 14th century CE, earthquakes were usually attributed to “air (vapors) in the cavities of the Earth”.[42] Thales of Miletus, who lived from 625-547 (BCE) was the only documented person who believed that earthquakes were caused by tension between the earth and water.[42] Other theories existed, including the Greek philosopher Anaxamines’ (585-526 BCE) beliefs that short incline episodes of dryness and wetness caused seismic activity. The Greek philosopher Democritus (460-371BCE) blamed water in general for earthquakes.[42] Pliny the Elder called earthquakes “underground thunderstorms”.[42]

    Earthquakes in culture
    Mythology and religion
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    In Norse mythology, earthquakes were explained as the violent struggling of the god Loki. When Loki, god of mischief and strife, murdered Baldr, god of beauty and light, he was punished by being bound in a cave with a poisonous serpent placed above his head dripping venom. Loki’s wife Sigyn stood by him with a bowl to catch the poison, but whenever she had to empty the bowl the poison would drip on Loki’s face, forcing him to jerk his head away and thrash against his bonds, causing the earth to tremble.[43]
    In Greek mythology, Poseidon was the cause and god of earthquakes. When he was in a bad mood, he would strike the ground with a trident, causing this and other calamities. He also used earthquakes to punish and inflict fear upon people as revenge.[44]
    In Japanese mythology, Namazu (鯰) is a giant catfish who causes earthquakes. Namazu lives in the mud beneath the earth, and is guarded by the god Kashima who restrains the fish with a stone. When Kashima lets his guard fall, Namazu thrashes about, causing violent earthquakes.

    Popular culture
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    In modern popular culture, the portrayal of earthquakes is shaped by the memory of great cities laid waste, such as Kobe in 1995 or San Francisco in 1906.[45] Fictional earthquakes tend to strike suddenly and without warning.[45] For this reason, stories about earthquakes generally begin with the disaster and focus on its immediate aftermath, as in Short Walk to Daylight (1972), The Ragged Edge (1968) or Aftershock: Earthquake in New York (1998).[45] A notable example is Heinrich von Kleist’s classic novella, The Earthquake in Chile, which describes the destruction of Santiago in 1647. Haruki Murakami’s short fiction collection, After the Quake, depicts the consequences of the Kobe earthquake of 1995.
    The most popular single earthquake in fiction is the hypothetical “Big One” expected of California’s San Andreas Fault someday, as depicted in the novels Richter 10 (1996) and Goodbye California (1977) among other works.[45] Jacob M. Appel’s widely-anthologized short story, A Comparative Seismology, features a con artist who convinces an elderly woman that an apocalyptic earthquake is imminent.[46] In Pleasure Boating in Lituya Bay, one of the stories in Jim Shepard’s Like You’d Understand, Anyway, the “Big One” leads to an even more devastating tsunami.
    In the film 2012 (2009), solar flares (geologically implausibly) affecting the Earth’s core caused massive destabilization of the Earth’s crust layers. This created destruction planet-wide with earthquakes and tsunamis, foreseen by the Mayan culture and myth surrounding the last year noted in the Mesoamerican calendar – 2012.
    Contemporary depictions of earthquakes in film are variable in the manner in which they reflect human psychological reactions to the actual trauma that can be caused to directly afflicted families and their loved ones.[47] Disaster mental health response research emphasizes the need to be aware of the different roles of loss of family and key community members, loss of home and familiar surroundings, loss of essential supplies and services to maintain survival.[48][49] Particularly for children, the clear availability of caregiving adults who are able to protect, nourish, and clothe them in the aftermath of the earthquake, and to help them make sense of what has befallen them has been shown to be even more important to their emotional and physical health than the simple giving of provisions.[50] As was observed after other disasters involving destruction and loss of life and their media depictions, such as those of the 2001 World Trade Center Attacks or Hurricane Katrina—and has been recently observed in the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, it is also important not to pathologize the reactions to loss and displacement or disruption of governmental administration and services, but rather to validate these reactions, to support constructive problem-solving and reflection as to how one might improve the conditions of those affected.[51]

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  10. doctor rashid kazmi

    FW: 10 Things You Can Do to Fight Human Trafficking , What You Don’t Know About Strawberries Could Kill You,Fighting HIV Stigma, By;-Doctor Rashid Kazmi‏
    From: doctorkazmi@hotmail.com
    Sent: Friday, April 02, 2010 11:19:19 AM
    To: Sahil Against Child Sexual Abuse Islamab Manizeh & Rubina (info@sahil.org)

    What You Don’t Know About Strawberries Could Kill You,

    By;-
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    Topics: Organic, Toxics ,
    Update: The California Strawberry Commission tells us it has no position on the approval of methyl iodide, but the manufacturer is lobbying for approval.
    Ah, fresh strawberries, that sweet, delightful summertime treat appreciated by taste buds everywhere.
    But those innocent-looking strawberries are also one of the most poisonous foods in the produce section — if you aren’t buying organic, that is. According to a study by the Environmental Working Group, strawberries rank as one of the dirtiest fruits and vegetables, readily absorbing the noxious chemicals that are used to grow them conventionally and exposing the consumer — and far more so the field workers who grow them — to up to 54 known carcinogens, among other toxins. And things are about to get worse.
    One of these noxious chemical, the widely-used methyl bromide, is being phased out thanks to international efforts to ban it due to its ozone-depleting effects. This would be good, except the fumigant that growers chemical manufacturer Arysta would like to replace it with is methyl iodide. Methyl iodide is used by scientists for the delightful purpose of intentionally inducing cancer in lab animals. Cancer is not just this chemical’s side effect; it’s its job.
    Astonishingly, the EPA under Bush approved this chemical for use, although California, where the majority of U.S. strawberries are grown, held off on approving the stuff. California is the second largest user of methyl bromide in the country, so now that it’s getting the boot, the pressure is on for the California Department of Pesticide Regulation to approve methyl iodide, known commercially as “Midas,” in its place.
    Of course we can avoid this and other dangerous pesticides by buying only organic strawberries, but that doesn’t help the migrant laborers who will be working in clouds of the stuff or the shoppers who simply don’t know the danger. Encourage people you know to only buy organic strawberries, along with the other “Dirty Dozen” vegetables the EWG points to as the most dangerous, call Governor Schwarzenegger, and sign the petition to keep the Midas touch out of California. If we succeed, the new EPA officials are likely to take notice and hopefully do the same for the rest of the country.

    10 Things You Can Do to Fight Human Trafficking

    by;-
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    KAZMI HOUSE
    Toheed Colony nea PC Hotal
    PO_Jhangi Abbottabad PAKISTAN.
    Tel;-00923009113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Topics: Fair Trade
    Human trafficking may seem like an insurmountable challenge because it is a multi-billion dollar global industry, but individuals can have a huge impact on the fight against trafficking. Here are 10 ideas for things you as an abolitionist can do to free slaves and end slavery.

    Throw a Viewing Party. Educate yourself others about human trafficking by inviting your family and friends to watch a film on human trafficking and discuss the issue. A film, either a documentary or fictional story, is a great way to introduce people to the issue because it helps them connect visually and emotionally to the victims. A film will also provide some topics for discussion. For some suggested short films, see the 10 Human Trafficking Videos section of this blog.
    Host a fundraiser for a local anti-trafficking nonprofit. While donating individually to the causes you support is great, there are many ways to take a small amount of money and turn it into a much larger amount for bigger impact. Instead of making a direct donation, try buying supplies for a bake sale or car wash and donate the proceeds, or recruit your friends to match your donation amount. Try some of these original fundraising ideas and don’t be afraid to think outside the box.

    Oppose the commercial sex industry, including prostitution, escort services, strip clubs, pornography and the “pimp n ho” culture. Sex trafficking victims can be found in all areas of the commercial sex industry, and demand for commercial sex makes the business lucrative for traffickers and motivates them to enslave more victims. Have bachelor and bachelorette parties at non-traditional (commercial sex-free) venues. Refuse to watch pornography and encourage friends to do the same. When fewer people buy commercial sex, traffickers have less incentive to force women and children to meet the demand.

    Support new or better state and local anti-trafficking laws. Many states already have anti-trafficking laws, but some don’t. Check to see if there are anti-trafficking laws in your state. Help strengthen state and local laws in your area by contacting your Governor, Senator or Representative. As a voter (or soon-to-be voter), you have the power to demand your representatives follow an abolitionist agenda. And remember, many voices asking for the same changes are powerful- consider a letter-writing campaign.

    Buy fair trade. Consumer demand for cheap goods and services motivates traffickers to enslave workers to pick our fruit, make our clothing, clean our hotel rooms, serve our food and do a number of other tasks. By buying fair trade goods, you support companies and products which ensure a living wage for the producers and humane working conditions. Learn more about what buying fair trade means.

    Support education and business opportunities for women and girls. Females disproportionately become victims of human trafficking because in many countries (including the U.S.) they lack the same educational and economic opportunities given to men. There are a number of international microeconomic development programs which give opportunities to girls and women, as well as U.S. organizations like the Girl Scouts which can help low-income girls afford college.

    Think globally, act locally. Involve your community, like your school, club, sports team or place of worship in the abolitionist movement. It’s a built-in network to spread the word about your passion for abolition and a great place to get your feet wet as an anti-trafficking activist. You might be surprised at what resources are available to you in your immediate community.

    Express the importance of freedom through art, music or performance. A college student with a love of theater and a passion for abolition once noticed that there were a number of young but talented theater majors at her school who weren’t getting cast in the big productions. So she wrote a short play based on real narratives of former slaves and cast her fellow students in the play. By charging a small admission fee to the show and selling products from Ten Thousand Villages, she was able to raise awareness in her community and over $1000 for a local anti-slavery NGO in a single night. A performance or piece of art stands out in a sea of facts and brochures.

    Remember the past and learn from it. It wasn’t that long ago that slavery was legal in the United States and most other countries. While economics is and has been the driving force behind human trafficking and slavery, racism, hate, bigotry, indifference and ignorance of different people and cultures have allowed it to thrive. Remember and celebrate abolitionist heroes of the past and celebrate racial unity and diversity today.

    Report suspected situations of human trafficking. Be alert to signs in your community that someone is being held, forced or coerced to work. To seek assistance for a trafficking victim, call the Department of Health and Human Services Human Trafficking Hotline at 888-373-7888 or the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 800-799-SAFE or 800-787-3224 (TTY). Both hot lines are prepared to answer calls in a number of languages. To report suspected trafficking crimes to law enforcement, call the U.S. Department of Justice Trafficking in Persons and Worker Exploitation Task Force at 888-428-7581 or U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement at 866-DHS-2ICE.

    Fighting HIV Stigma,
    by;-
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    KAZMI HOUSE
    Toheed Colony nea PC Hotal
    PO_Jhangi Abbottabad PAKISTAN.
    Tel;-00923009113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Topics: HIV/AIDS

    The folks at the AIDS Taskforce in Cleveland, Ohio have launched a new program to fight HIV-stigma.
    The group has printed up some 4,000 bright red t-shirts emblazoned in black and white HIV-Positive. Those who get the shirt are encouraged to wear it in public. One columnist for the Cleveland Plain Dealer did just that, choosing to wear his shirt to a gun show.
    Tony Brown wrote of the experience on Thursday, noting that he “had no trouble parting the huge crowds,” and he noted that he was prevented from touching merchandise that others had been handling.
    The “stunt” is a powerful reminder of the impact of being HIV-positive in America. While many folks would like us all to believe that being HIV-positive is just like being a diabetic, this kind of exercise shows in all the simple ugliness, that the two are nothing alike. Besides, show me a law in the U.S. that makes it a crime to not disclose your diabetes to intimate partners. And when was the last time a diabetic was charged with bioterrorism for being who they are and allegedly defending themselves, like Daniel Allen of Clinton Township Michigan?
    And the comments on Brown’s column are telling as well.
    “I do not want the stigma of being even remotely connected to HIV,” wrote Callisto.
    “Yes, let’s remove the stigma of AIDS. Why not go ahead and make AIDS cool,” wrote spellchecker99. “Then everybody will want to get AIDS. Actually in some cases a stigma is a good thing. It makes people think twice about doing something if it’s going to bring them shame and ridicule.”
    “I respect the people who are brave enough to participate in this because they are facing prejudice head-on. I had no idea that HIV+ people were treated this way,” wrote Gofuzzy. “Even reading these comments here, I’m surprised to see so much hate. No, these t-shirts are NOT trying to make it look cool or desirable to have AIDS, they’re just trying to make life easier for the people who are infected. I can’t imagine what life would be like having an incurable disease, yet having everyone hate me for it. What’s the point? Why do people feel that way?”
    So what do you think? Would you spend a day — regardless of your HIV-status — walking around your hometown with a t-shirt emblazoned with the words HIV Positive?

  11. doctor rashid kazmi

    History of Pakistan Calendar of events 2010 Gilgit Baltistan Tourism By, Doctor Rashid Kazmi 0092 300 9113675‏
    From: doctorkazmi@hotmail.com
    Sent: Monday, March 15, 2010 8:14:12 PM
    To: ae’ (a.guide@hotmail.com); Agder (svennn77@hotmail.com); agostino (amante23@live.it)

    History of Pakistan
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Pakistan emerged on the world map as an independent sovereign state in August 1947, as a result of the division of the British Indian Empire. With a land area of 796,095 sq. km. [including FATA (Federal Administered Tribal Areas) and FANA (Federal Administered Northern Areas)], its population stands at nearly 172.80 million, according to the 2008 Census. Historically, this is one of the most ancient lands known to man. Its cities flourished before Babylon was built; its people practiced the art of good living and citizenship before the celebrated ancient Greeks.

    The region traces its history back to at least 2,500 years before Christ, when a highly developed civilization flourished in the Indus Valley. Excavations at Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Kot Diji have brought to light evidence of an advanced civilization flourishing here even in most ancient times. Around 1,500 B.C. the Aryans conquered this region and slowly pushed the Hindu inhabitants further east, towards the Ganges Valley. Later, the Persians occupied the northern regions in 5th century B.C. The Greeks came in 327 B.C., under Alexander of Macedonia, and ran through the region like a meteor. In 712 A.D. the Arabs, led by Mohammed Bin Qasim, landed somewhere near what is now Karachi, and ruled the lower half of Pakistan for two hundred years. During this time Islam took root and influenced the life, culture and traditions of the inhabitants of the region.

    From 10th century A.D. onwards, a systematic conquest of Indo-Pakistan by the Muslims from Central Asia began and lasted up to 18th century A.D., when the British colonized the Sub-continent and ruled for nearly 200 years (for 100 years over what is now Pakistan). The Muslim revival began towards the end of the last century when Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, a renowned leader and educationist, launched a movement for intellectual renaissance of the Indian Muslims. In 1930, the well-known poet/philosopher, Dr. Mohammed Iqbal conceived the idea of a separate state for the Muslims of the Sub-continent, and in 1940, the All-India Muslim League adopted the famous Pakistan Resolution.

    After seven years of untiring struggle, under the brilliant leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Pakistan emerged on the world map as a sovereign state on August 14, 1947, when the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two independent states – India and Pakistan.

    brief Facts About Pakistan
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Official Name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
    Capital: Islamabad.
    Area: 796,096-sq. km. [Punjab 205,344; Sindh 140,914; Northwest Frontier Province 74,521; Balochistan 347,190; Federally Administered Tribal Areas 27,220 and Islamabad (Capital) 906 sq. km.]
    Population: 172.80 million (2008 Census)
    Ethnic Composition: 95% Muslims, 5% others
    Per Capita Income: US $ 460
    Currency: Pak. Rupee
    Language: Urdu (National language), English (Official)
    Archaeological Sites: Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Taxila, Kot Diji, Mehar Garh, and Takht Bahi
    Major Cities: Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Faisalabad and Multan.

    About Pakistan
    A trip through Pakistan is a face to face encounter with a fascinating land that has withstood countless invasions and preserved the essence of its conquerors in the form of present day monuments and archaeological heritage.

    See for yourself the excavated sites at Mohenjodaro and Taxila – seats of the ancient Indus Valley and Gandhara civilizations; the architectural monuments of the Moghuls; the Khyber Pass – the historic inlet to South Asia – or the ancient unchanging traditions of the Kafir Kalash of the Chitral Valley.

    For those with an intrinsic love of mountains, Pakistan offers the unique pleasure of its northern mountain ranges, the Himalayas, the Hindukush and the Karakorams – a mountain wonderland unrivalled in the entire world with such formidable peaks as the K-2, the Nanga Parbat, the Rakaposhi, and the Trichmir. These ranges present an awesome challenge for those looking for trekking, mountaineering, angling, or jeep safaris. The resorts in these remote valleys make for an ideal summer get-away.

    People and Languages
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Predominantly Muslims, the people of Pakistan are culturally homogeneous. Other religious groups include the Christians, Buddhist, Hindus and Parsees. All belong to a composite racial stock although the majority belongs to an Aryan extraction. While Urdu, the national language, is spoken throughout Pakistan, English is extensively used in official and commercial circles, and in the cities. The regional languages are Sindhi in Sindh, Balochi in Balochistan, Punjabi in Punjab and Pushto in the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP).

    Geography

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Pakistan has a total area of 803,940 square kilometers, slightly greater than France and the United Kingdom put together.

    Pakistan is located in South Asia. To the south is the Arabian Sea, with 1,046 km of Pakistani coastline. To Pakistan’s east is India, which has a 2,912 km border with Pakistan. To its west is Iran, which has a 909 km border with Pakistan. To Pakistan’s northwest lies Afghanistan, with a shared border of 2,430 km. China is towards the northeast and has a 523 km border with Pakistan.

    The main waterway of Pakistan is the Indus River that begins in China, and runs nearly the entire length of Pakistan, flowing through all of Pakistan’s provinces except Balochistan. is fed by the combined waters of three of the five rivers of Punjab the Chenab, Jhelum, and Ravi. The waters of the other two rivers, the Beas and the Sutlej, are largely withdrawn for irrigation in India. Along the Indus and its tributaries are found most of Pakistan’s population, its chief agricultural areas, and its major hydroelectric power stations, interconnected by the world’s largest system of agricultural canals, join the Indus before it discharges into the Arabian Sea.

    The northern and western areas of Pakistan are mountainous. Pakistani administered areas of Kashmir contain some of the highest mountains in the world, including the second tallest, K-2. Northern Pakistan tends to receive more rainfall than the southern parts of the country, and has some areas of preserved moist temperate forest. In the southeast, Pakistan’s border with India passes through a flat desert, called the Cholistan or Thal Desert. West-central Balochistan has a high desert plateau, bordered by low mountain ranges. Most of the Punjab, and parts of Sindh, are fertile plains where agriculture is of great importance.

    Major Vegetative Zone :
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com
    • Permanent snow fields & glaciers
    • Dry alpine & cold desert zone
    • Alpine scrub & moist alpine
    • Himalayan dry coniferous with ilex oak
    • Himalayan moist temperate forest
    • Sub-tropical pine forest
    • Sub-tropical dry mixed deciduous scrub forest
    • Balochistan Juniper & pistachio scrub forest
    • Dry sub-tropical and temperate semi-evergreen scrub forest
    • Tropical thorn forest & sand dune desert
    • Mangrove and littoral
    • Sand dune desert

    Agro Ecological zones include:
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com
    • Indus Delta
    • Southern irrigated plain
    • Sandy deserts
    • Northern irrigated plains
    • Rain-fed lands
    • Wet mountains
    • Northern dry mountains
    • Western dry mountains
    • Dry western plateau
    • Sulaiman piedmont

    Security
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Pakistan recently underwent significant political and structural reforms, moving towards macro-economic stability, debt management, revival of the democratic process with increased women’s representation, major institutional reforms with emphasis on devolution and decentralization, significant progress in information technology, reduction in population growth, and food grain self-sufficiency, which has been maintained for the past several years. Efforts to combat corruption and improve law and order have been firmly established.

    The nation has demonstrated resilience in dealing with the challenges posed by drought, the impact of the Afghan crisis, influx of refugees and the 11 September aftermath. While the difficult regional security situation has led to a diversion of scarce development resources to defence, Pakistan has striven to resolve issues according to the principles of the United Nations Charter, as indicated in the common country assessment (CCA).
    With a human development index of 0.498 in 1999, Pakistan ranked 127 out of a total of 162 countries, and with a gender-related development index of 0.466 in 1999 it ranked 117 out of a total of 146 countries, according to the Human Development Report 2001. According to government estimates in 2000, 34 per cent of the population lives below the poverty line, while the cost of environmental degradation was estimated at 4.3 per cent of GDP in 1998. Although there has been some improvement in women’s status over the last several years, the position of women in Pakistan remains weak and gender disparities are reflected in all social indicators. As a result of its debt burden, low revenue base and recent low growth rates, Pakistan has not been able to invest adequately in human development.
    Public investments in the 1990s focused mainly on infrastructure. Private education and health services are common but expensive, whereas public services are inadequate, particularly in rural areas and for women and girls. Social regression, land degradation and unemployment have further reduced. resources available to the poor. It is recognized that the answer to these problems lies in improving the quality of governance, making make it more inclusive and participatory; strengthening systems of accountability and transparency; promoting citizens’ involvement in decisions that influence their lives; and strengthening the role of the Government in facilitating development.

    Pakistan District Profiles

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Pakistan has four provinces North West Frontier, Sindh, Punjab, Province and Balochistan.

    Each Province is further divided into districts. There are 34 districts in punjab, 16 in Sindh, 26 in Balochistan and 24 in NWFP.

    Districts Of NWFP

    1. Peshawar
    2. Charsada
    3. Mardan
    4. Swabi
    5. Bunner
    6. Swat
    7. Shangla
    8. Malakand
    9. Kohistan 10. Batagram
    11. Mansehra
    12. Abbottabad
    13. Haripur
    14. Chitral
    15. Upper Dir
    16. Lower Dir 17. Nowshera
    18. Kohat
    19. Hangu
    20. Karak
    21. Bannu
    22. Lakki Marwat
    23. D.I. Khan
    24. Tank

    Punjab

    1. Attock
    2. Bhakkar
    3. Bahawalnagar
    4. Bahawalpur
    5. Chakwal
    6. Dera Ghazi Khan
    7. Faisalabad
    8. Gujrat
    9. Gujranwala
    10. Jhang
    11. Hafizabad 12. Khanewal
    13. Lahore
    14. Lodhran
    15. Layyah
    16. Mandi-Bahaudddin
    17. Multan
    18. Mianwali
    19. Muzaffargarh
    20. Narowal
    21. Okara
    22. Pakpattan 23. Rawalpindi
    24. Jhelum
    25. Khushab
    26. Kasur
    27. Rahimyarkhan
    28. Rajanpur
    29. Sahiwal
    30. Sargodha
    31. Sheikhupura
    32. Gujrat
    33. Toba Tek Singh
    34. Vehari

    Sindh

    1. Karachi
    2. Hyderabad
    3. Badin
    4. Thatta
    5. Dadu
    6. Sukkur
    7. Ghotki
    8. Khairpur 9. Nawabshah
    10. Noshero Feroz
    11. Tharparkar
    12. Mirpurkhas
    13. Sanghar
    14. Larkana
    15. Jacobabad
    16. Shikarpur

    Balochistan

    1. AWARAN
    2. BARKHAN
    3. BOLAN
    4. CHAGAI
    5. DERABUGTI
    6. GAWADAR
    7. JAFFARABAD
    8. JHALMAGSI 9. KALAT
    10. KECH
    11. KHARAN
    12. KOHLU
    13. KHUZDAR
    14. KILLA ABDULLAH
    15. KILLA SAIFULLAH
    16. LASBELA
    17. LORALAI 18. MASTUNG
    19. MUSAKHEL
    20. NASIRABAD
    21. PANJGUR
    22. PISHIN
    23. QUETTA
    24. SIBI
    25. ZHOB
    26. ZIARAT

    Pakista Calendar of events 2010
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Pakistan’s calendar features a great many festivals/ events. Pakistan’s main tourism events being celebrated in 2010 are listed below;
    MONTH
    FESTIVAL / EVENT
    DATE
    VENUE
    TO BE ORGANIZED BY

    January
    Cultural Train Safari
    3rd January
    Islamabad
    Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation / PRACS

    February
    1. Participation in Dawn Lifestyle Exhibition

    2. National Ski Championship at Naltar

    3. Sibi Mela- in coordination with Balochistan Tourism
    Mid Feb

    Mid Feb

    20-24 Feb

    Islamabad

    Naltar (Gilgit)

    Sibi

    Dawn Lifestyle / Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation

    Pakistan Air Force / Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation

    Govt. of Balochistan, / Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation

    March
    1. All Pakistan Rock Climbing Competition

    2. Cholistan Jeep Rally-with TDCP

    3. Para Gliding Show
    5-8 March

    Mid March

    Mid March
    Islamabad

    Cholistan

    Lahore
    Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation / Adventure Club

    Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation / Tourism Development Corporation of Punjab

    Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation / Pakistan Association of Free Flying

    April
    1. Aero Modeling Display
    21st April
    Fatima Jinnah Park
    Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation

    May
    1. Kalash Festival in coordination with Sarhad Tourism Corporation
    15th May
    Kalash Valley Chitral
    Sarhad Tourism Corporation

    June
    1. Ayubia-Doonga Gali Walk
    1st week of June
    Ayubia
    Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation

    July
    2. Shandur Polo Festival in consultation with Sarhad Tourism Corporation
    7-9 July
    Shandur
    Sarhad Tourism Corporation

    August
    1. Independence Day Celebrations

    2. Silk Route Festival
    14th August

    15 -18 August
    Rawalpindi

    Gilgit Baltistan
    Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation

    Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation / Gilgit Baltistan Tourism Department

    September
    1. World Tourism Day (Essay Competition, Photo Competition, Painting Competition, Awareness Seminars etc. for students)
    27-28 September
    Rawalpindi

    Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation

    October
    1. Seminar on Medical Tourism.

    28th to 29th October
    Islamabad
    Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation/ Pakistan Medical Association

    November
    1. Autumn Tourism Gala

    Mid November
    Islamabad
    Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation / Capital Development Authority

    December
    1. International Mountain Tourism Conference/ Seminar/ Photo Exhibition
    11th December

    Islamabad
    Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation / Adventure Foundation Pakistan

    About Gilgit Baltistan

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    The Northern Area is the most spectacular and fascinating region of Pakistan. It is here that the world’s three famous mountain ranges meet – the Himalayas, the Karakorams and the Hindukush. The whole Northern Pakistan has come to be known as a paradise for mountaineers, climbers, trekkers, hikers and anglers of the most famous “Trout fish”.

    In the northern regions of Pakistan, at a stone’s throw from the Amu Darya, is” Bam-e-Dunya” (the roof of the world). This was the name given to the great Pamir plateau, apex of six of the mightiest mountain ranges of the world.

    The historic Karakoram pass 5,575 metres, an ancient trading route between Kashmir and Xinjiang, gives its name to the range west of it that forms the watershed between the Indus and the Central Asian deserts. The eastern boundary of the Karakoram is the upper Shyok River from where it extends over 322 km. westwards to the Karumbar river and the Hindukush range. To the north the Shaksgam tributary of the Yarkand River and south by the Indus bound the Karakoram. Here, the Nanga Parbat 8,126 metres massif is the western anchor of the great Himalayan range which stretches in an arc 24,124 km. east to Burma, a boundary and barrier, “the razor’s edge” which for centuries has determined the destiny of the Indian sub-continent.

    Such is the setting of Karakoram Range, this remnant of a primeval ice age, “the third pole,” with extensive glacier systems and the greatest concentration of lofty mountains in the world. Some of the largest glaciers outside sub-polar regions flow in the Karakorams. For its sheer mountain grandeur and breath-taking panorama of beauty, few places can match the superb landscape through which the Karakoram Highway snakes. A fantastic and unforgettable spectacle is the passage of the Highway along the Baltura glacier, rated among the worlds seventh largest.

    The Khunjerab Pass, which the Highway crosses, and the nearby Mintaka Pass lie astride the fabulous ancient Silk Route that led from Europe to Asia and over which history’s most famous tourists once travelled. These include the Venetian trader Marco Polo after who has been made the wild Marco Polo sheep in the thirteenth century, the Chinese Monk Fe Hien in the fourth century and the Arab historian, Al-Beruni in the eleventh century.

    The Siachin glacier is 75 km, the Hispar, (52 km) joints the Biafo at the Hispar La 5,154 metres to form an ice corridor, 116 km. long.The Batura too is 58 km. in length. But the most outstanding of these rivers of ice is the Baltoro (62 km). This mighty glacier fed by some 30 tributaries constitutes a surface area of 1,219 sq. km. Of the fourteen over 8,000 m peaks on earth, four occupy an amphitheatre at the head of Baltoro. There are K-2 (8,611) second only to Everest, Broad Peak (8,047 metres) Gasherbrum-I (8,068 metres), Gasherbrum-II (8,035 metres).

    Seen from a distance, the Baltoro appears smooth and beautiful but in fact it is a chaotic tumbling mass of rock and ice, troughs and hillocks and the debris of centuries.
    It is a unique remote corner of earth. For here, in a frozen wilderness a crag, cornices and crevasses, raise towering spires of granite, great snowy peaks with fluted icy ridges and pinnacles that pierce the sky.In the Lesser Karakorams there are equally great peaks such as Rakaposhi (7,788 metres), the dominant giant in Hunza valley. Its north face is fantastic precipice – 5,791 metres of plunging snow and ice.

    There are scores of over 7,000 m peaks in the Karakoram Range and hundreds of nameless summits below 6,000 metres, mere points on the map. The shapes, forms, sizes, colours provide tremendous contrast, which defy description. K-2, the undisputed monarch of the sky, Broad Peak, massive and ugly, Muztagh Tower, deceptively, sheer. Gasherbrum-II, the “Egyptian Pyramid” that even Cheops would have preferred for a tomb, Chogolisa, the “Bride Peak”, in whose eternal embrace lies Hermann Buhi, the first man to climb Nanga Parbat. The Cathedrals of the Baltoro with their great knife-edge ridges, the sky cleaving monoliths of the Trango Towers and most beautiful of all – the Peak of Perfection – Paiyu, (6,600 metres) first climbed by a Pakistani expedition in 1977.

    The Hindukush is also a mountain vastness containing hundreds of peaks, many above 7,000 metres including a Trichmir 7,705 metre that is the highest point of the range

    Gilgit Valley
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    At an elevation of 1,454 metres lies the Gilgit Valley. The quaint little town of Gilgit has spectacular scenic beauty. The peak tourist season is from April to October though you can visit the valley round the year. The maximum temperature in May is 33 C and the minimum 16 C and in September, maximum 28 C and minimum 11 C.

    Places to visit

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Gilgit Bridge:
    The bridge over the fast flowing Gilgit River, at the end of its traditional bazaar, is the largest suspension bridge in Asia (182 metres long and 2 metres wide) permitting enough room for one jeep at a time to cross.

    Kargah Buddha:
    Located on a rock near Kargah Nullah (ravine), 10 km. from Gilgit town is a beautiful rock engraving of Buddha from 7th century A.D.

    Monument of Taj Mughal:
    A victory monument of Taj Mughal, built 700 years ago, is 30 km. jeep drive from Gilgit town.

    Sher Qilla:
    It is 38 km. from Gilgit – Trekking route links with Naltar valley. Trout fishing can be enjoyed in Sher Qilla Nullah and a small lake.

    Singal:
    About 61 km from Gilgit – Trekking route links with Chilas and Kohistan valley.

    Gahkuch:
    Headquarter of Ghizer District – Ideal place for trekking, good fishing sports and duck shooting in season. It is the gateway to Iskoman Valley. Government rest house and private hotels are available (73 km from Gilgit). Archaeological sites in village and a near by village Hatoon.

    Naltar Valley:
    Two hours jeep drive from Gilgit link rod. Government Rest house, Private hotels and a Ski slope, lush green Alpine forest with small lakes and glaciers, trout fishing in lake. Trekking routes link with Iskoman, Chalt and Punial valley.

    Sports

    The favourite sport in Gilgit is polo which local folks claim originated here. It’s more rugged, free-style version than the sedate variety known in the plains. The polo tournament held from 1st November to 7th November is a festive occasion and draws a large number of visitors.

    Angling
    The streams and lakes of Gilgit are full of trout. These are at Kargah Nullah (10 km, from Gilgit), Singal (61 km), Gakuch (73 km), and Phandar (117 km from Gilgit). Permits for fishing are issued by the Assistant Director, Fisheries, Government of Pakistan, Gilgit.

    Trekking & Hiking
    Trekking and hiking in the rugged mountains and verdant valleys of Gilgit are allowed only in the “open zone” which extends unto 16 km. short of the cease-fire on the Kashmir border and unto 50 km short of the Afghan border. Guides are available from PTDC Motel, Gilgit. Please check for latest rules and list of treks from the Ministry of Tourism in Islamabad.

    Mountaineering
    Around Gilgit are towering mountain peaks, waiting to be scaled. Permits for mountaineering are issued by the Ministry of Tourism, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

    How To Get There
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    BY Air: PIA operates three daily flights between Islamabad and Gilgit. All flights are subject to good weather. The flying time is one hour and one-way fare is approximately US $ 44 for foreigners.

    By Road: Gilgit is also accessible from Islamabad/Rawalpindi by the Karakoram Highway. Rawalpindi to Gilgit via Swat is 704 km and takes 19 hours by bus/van; Rawalpindi to Gilgit via Thakot: 628 km. 16 hours by bus/van; Rawalpindi to Gilgit via Babusar Pass 535 km. 21 hours by jeep.

    There is a regular bus and van services operate on the Karakoram Highway between Rawalpindi and Gilgit via Besham. The main bus terminal of NATCO & other private bus lines is at Pirwadhai General Bus Stand, Rawalpindi. Advance booking is required (Tel: 051-5462181)

    Where To Stay
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Gilgit has a number of comfortably furnished and reasonably priced cottage-hotels, motels including PTDC’s Chinnar Inn, and rest houses.

    For assistance, please contact:
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi Kazmi House Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal Post Office Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan Tel; 0092-300-9113675 from pakistan tel; 03009113675
    email; doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Useful Information
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Temperature
    Maximum = 10 C
    Minimum = 40 C

    Rent-A-Car Service
    1. PTDC Motel, Gilgit. Tel: (92-0572) 2562
    2. Travel Walji’s, Airport Road, Gilgit
    3. Pamir Tours, JSR, Gilgit. Tel: (92-0572) 4100
    5. Hamila Nature Tours, Airport Road
    6. Glolden Peak Tour, Link Road, Gilgit
    7. Mountain Movers, Airport Road, Gilgit
    8. Adventure Tours, Airport Road, Gilgit
    9. Paradise Tours, Airport Road, Gilgit
    10. Nature Tours, Airport Road, Gilgit

    Important Shopping Centres & Handicrafts Shops
    1. Col. Hassan Market
    2. Makka Market
    3. Madina Market
    4. Kashmiri Bazar
    5. Jamat Khana Bazar
    6. Pul Road Bazar
    7. G.M. Beg Jamat Khana Bazar
    8. Salman Beg
    9. Jamil Gem Store & Handicrafts
    10. Qayyum Handicrafts, Airport Road.

    Restaurants
    1. PTDC Motel
    2. Mirs Lodges
    3. Serena Hotel,
    4. Riveria Hotel
    5. IBEX Inn
    6. Razaman Hotel
    7. Phatau Restaurant
    8. Salar Restaurant

    District Hospitals In Five Districts Of Northern Areas
    1. D.H.Q, Gilgit
    2. D.H.Q. Hospital, Ghazin (Gahkuch)
    3. D.H.Q. Hospital, Chilas (Diamer)
    4. D.H.Q. Hospital, Skardu
    5. D.H.Q. Hospital, Khaplu (Ghache District)

    Important Telephone Numbers
    Chief Secretary, Northern Areas Tel: (92-0572) 2501
    Deputy Commissioner Tel: (92-0572) 2521
    I.G. Police Tel: (92-0572) 2403
    A.I.G. Tel: (92-0572) 2366
    S.S.P. Tel: (92-0572) 2502
    Airport Police Station el: (92-0572) 3266
    Special Branch Police el: (92-0572) 3356
    Intelligence Bureau Police Tel: (92-0572)2496
    PIA Booking Tel: (92-0572) 3390
    PIA Tower Tel: (92-0572) 3947
    Airport Manager Tel: (92-0572) 2333
    Airport Security Tel: (92-0572) 3852
    Habib Bank Tel: (92-0572) 3884
    National Bank Tel (92-0572) 2556
    Muslim Commercial Bank Tel: (92-0572) 2349
    Soneri Bank Tel: (92-0572) 3650

    What To See?
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Kharpocho Fort: Skardu has an ancient Fort known as Kharpocho Fort (King of Forts) situated on a hill overlooking the town. It was constructed by Ali Sher Khan Anchan, who ruled over Baltistan till the end of the 16th century.

    Buddha Rock Carvings: Dating back to 8th century AD, a huge Buddha figure surrounded by small Buddhisatvas is carved on a rock, three kilometres from Skardu across Sadpara Nullah on Skardu-Sadpara Road. Pre-historic men and animal figures are carved on rocks along Kachura Lake. Some rock carvings and diagram of a monastery near Perkuta (Mehdi Abad) Nalah are also found.

    Shigar Valley: The gateway to the great mountain peaks of the Karakorams, Gasherbrum & K-2, is only 23 km away from Skardu via jeep road. Shigar valley’s gentle, irrigated slopes are filled with terraces of wheat, maize and barley. Its orchards of apricots, mulberries, peaches, plums, pears, apples and nuts are unique to Baltistan. The wooden mosque in the middle of the town was built by Kashmiri carpenters several hundred years ago. There is the ex-Raja’s old Fort and Palace in the village.

    Khaplu Valley: This beautiful valley of the Shyok River is 103 km east of Skardu. Khaplu is the starting point for most trekking and climbing expeditions. Many famous mountains such as Masherbrum, Saltoro, Sia Kangri, K-6, K-7 are located here. Chaqchan Mosque is one of the earliest mosques in Baltistan (1504 AD), attributed to Syed Ali Hamdani. There is a Palace of Raja of Khaplu and remains of Thorsikhar Fort.

    Sadpara Lake
    About 8 km (5miles) north of Skardu and 20 minutes by jeep lays Sadpara Lake, surrounded by glacial mountains, which are mirrored in its crystal clear waters. The lake has a fairytale island in the middle, which can be reached by country boats that one can row. This lake also abounds in fish and is considered ideal for fishing.

    Kachura Lake
    About 32 km (20 miles) from Skardu and 2 hours by jeep lies the shimmering peaceful deep Kachura Lake, teeming with brown trout. During spring many exotic and colourful flowers adorn its banks, while peach, apricot and apple trees are laden with blossoms in April. Later in the summer one can taste the apples, which are a particularly delicious variety.

    How To Get There?
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    By Air: PIA operates a daily Boeing flight between Islamabad and Skardu (subject to good weather). The air journey is full of thrills and would itself be regarded as the highlight of the visit. Return airfare is equivalent to US $ 88/- for foreigners. For bookings, please contact PIA’s Northern Areas Booking Office at Rawalpindi (Tel: 051-9272200).

    By Road: Skardu is 793 km from Islamabad via Karakoram Highway and Skardu Road. The daily NATCO bus & coach service takes 24 hours for this wonderful and adventurous journey. An all-weather, 241 km long Skardu road, connects Skardu with Gilgit. The journey takes around six hours.

    Where To Stay?

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Besides other reasonably priced private hotels, PTDC Motels at Skardu, Sadpara Lake and Khaplu offer comfortable accommodation. There are government rest houses at Skardu, Sadpara, Shigar Valley, Khaplu and Kachura. Advance reservation is required.

    What To Buy?

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Baltistan is known for its “Pattu” – hand woven woollen cloth for jackets, coats etc. You can also pick up colourful intricately embroidered “Chugas” (Baltistani gown) and wooden spoons at Skardu bazaar.

    What To Do?
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Mountaineering, Trekking and Hiking
    The area is ideal for mountaineering, trekking and hiking. Permission for mountaineering and trekking for restricted zone is issued by the Ministry of Tourism, Government of Pakistan, Pakistan Sports Complex, Kashmir Highway, Aabpara, Islamabad (Telephone: 92-51-9203509). Fishing permits are issued by the Fisheries Department at Gilgit and Skardu.

    Fishing
    Satpara Lake (8km) and Kachura Lake 932km) from Skardu abound in trout. Fishing permits are issued by the Fisheries Department.

    Flora & Fauna
    Roses, lilies, pansies, willow, pine and fir trees are found in abundance. Apples, apricots, peaches, plums mulberry, walnuts and grapes are available from June to October and almonds from October to March.

    Wildlife
    Baltistan boasts of wildlife like Markhors, ibexes, snow leopards and birds, namely Chakors, partridges and ducks. Most of the animals and birds are protected but limited shooting is allowed. Hunting permits are issued by the local administration.

    Important Information
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Shopping Centres
    1. Naya Bazar, Old Bazar, Botto Bazar, Hussain Chowk, Alamdar Chowk,
    Kazmi Bazar, Gamba Bazar, Benazir Chowk, Yadgar Chowk etc.

    2. Handicraft Shops:
    i) Murad Trading Co. Gem Stores & Antiques, New Bazar, Skardu. Tel: (92-0575) 2132
    ii) Hassan Mirza & Co. New Bazar, Skardu. Tel: (92-0575) 55420
    iii) Pakiza Gems, Batti Antiques, Naya Bazar, Skardu. Tel: (92-0575) 55118
    iv) K-2 Handicraft, K-2 Motel, Skardu. Tel: (92-0575) 2577
    v) Topaz Gems, Yadgar Chowk, Skardu.
    vi) Sahabaz Gems, Kazmi Bazar, Skardu.

    List Of Tour & Travel Agencies
    1. Baltistan Tours,
    Sher Ali Chowk,
    Near Alamdar Chowk, Skardu.
    Tel: (92-0575) 2626

    2. Nazir Sabir Expedition,
    Near K-2 Motel, Skardu.
    Tel.: (92-0575) 2778

    3. Adventure Tours of Pakistan,
    Near Kushu Bagh, Skardu.
    Tel: (92-0575) 2249

    4. Himalaya Trekking & Tours,
    Near Sadpara Inn, Yadgar Chowk, Skardu.
    Tel: (92-0575) 2528

    5. Walji’s Travel,
    New Police Station, Skardu.
    Tel: (92-0575) 3468

    6. Tibbet Treks & Tours,
    Yadgar Chowk, Skardu.
    Tel: (92-0575) 55418

    7. Hushe Treks & Tours, Skardu.

    List Of Hotels In Skardu

    1. Concordia – II
    Number of Rooms = 07
    Near K-2 Motel, skardu. S.R. D.R.
    Tel: (92-0575) 2515 Rs. 700/- Rs. 800/-
    Meals: Lunch: Rs. 180/-
    Chinese Dinner: Rs. 200/-
    Pakistani Dinner: Rs. 210/-
    Lunch: Rs. 200/-
    Break Fast: Rs. 100/-

    2. Hunza Inn
    Number of Rooms = 10
    Naya Bazar, Skardu. Room Rs. 200/-
    Tel: (92-0575) 2570 Meal: Rs. 60/-

    3. Baltistan Tourist Cottage
    Number of Rooms = 10
    Chowk Yadgar, Skardu. Room: Rs. 150/- to 200/-
    Tel: (92-0575) 2707 Meal: Rs. 50/-

    4. Baltoro Rest House
    Rooms = 20
    Satellite Town, Skardu. Rooms: Rs. 200/-
    Tel: (92-0575) 2443 (for government servants)
    Rooms: Rs. 250/-
    (for others)
    VIP Room: Rs. 250/-
    (for government servants)
    VIP Rooms: Rs. 400/-
    (for other visitors)

    5. Northern Areas PWD Rest House
    Rooms = 10
    Hamid Garh, Skardu. VIP Rooms = 07 – Rs. 2500/-
    Tel: (92-0575) 2405 (for government servants)
    Rs. 400/- (for others)
    Ordinary Rooms = 03
    Rs. 200/- to Rs. 300/-

    6. Yak N Yurt Sarai
    Number of Rooms = 14
    Satellite Town, Skardu.
    Tel: (92-0575) 2856

    List Of Hospitals & Medical Centres

    1. District Hospital, Skardu.
    Tel: (92-0575) 2413
    Emergency Tel: (92-0575) 2413

    2. Eye Hospital Northern Areas,
    Skardu (Gamba)
    Tel: (92-0575)

    3. Abbas Medical Centre, Skardu.

    4. Rahman Clinic, Skardu.
    Tel: (92-0575) 3156

    5. Dr. M. Ashraf Clinic
    Tel: (92-0575) 2613

    6. Dr. Tariq Sharif Clinic

    7. Combined Military Hospital, Skardu

    8. DHO, Skardu.
    Tel: (92-0575) 3156

    9. Al-Abbas Hospital, Link Road, Skardu.
    Tel: (92-0575) 55518

    10. Rehman Clinic, Skardu.
    Tel: (92-0575) 3156

    11. Sakina Professional Training Institute for Women, Skardu.
    Tel: (92-0575) 55026

    Important Telephone Numbers Of Skardu
    Deputy Commissioner 55062)
    Senior Superintendent of Police 2424,2888,2979
    Assistant Commissioner 55075
    PIA Airport 2492
    PIA Booking Office 2941,3325
    PIA Cargo 2291
    CAA Airport Tower 2413
    Police Station 2444
    Municipal Committee 2618

    Hunza Valley

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    The visitors to Hunza are overwhelmed by the rugged charm, the fragrant breeze singing through graceful Poplar trees and the velvet-like green carpet of wheat fields, set against the background of snow-covered mountains.

    Situated at an elevation of 2,438 metres, Hunza Valley’s tourist season is from April to October. The temperature in May is maximum 27 C and minimum 14 C. The October temperature are: maximum 10 C and minimum 0 C. However, one can visit Hunza round the year.

    Most of the people of Hunza are Ismaili Muslims, followers of His Highness the Aga Khan. The local language is Brushuski. Urdu and English are also understood by most of people.

    Karimabad, the capital of Hunza, offers an awe-inspiring view of Rakaposhi 7,788 metres. The snows of Rakaposhi glitter in the moonlight, producing an atmosphere at once ethereal and sublime.

    The fairy-tale like castle of Baltit, above Karimabad, is a Hunza landmark built about 600 years ago. Stilted on massive legs, its wooden bay windows look out over the valley. Originally, it was used as the residence of the Mirs (the title of the former rulers) of Hunza.

    Mountaineering And Hiking
    Hunza is ideal for mountaineering, trekking and hiking. Most of the treks in Hunza area are in open zone, for which tourists do not need any permit. However special permits are required from the Ministry of Tourism, Islamabad for mountaineering, trekking in restricted zone & climbing peaks over 6000 metres.

    How to Get There:
    Regular Bus and Van Services operate between Gilgit and Karimabad. PTDC Office at Chinnar Inn, Gilgit, arranges tours and transport for visitors.

    Where to Stay:
    There are reasonably priced hotels, motels and rest houses at Aliabad, Karimabad, Passu, Gulmit and Sost including PTDC Motels in Hunza and Sost.

    Chitral Valley

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    This 322 km.(200-mile) long mountain hideout, nesting high in the Hindu Kush range, is a place of fascinating scenic beauty and grandeur. Chitral’s collection of rugged mountains, sulphur springs, rivers teeming with trout, orchard-dotted slopes, friendly people and annual festivals are enchanting beyond description. For the modern day traveler this scenic region offers an exciting experience. It is easily accessible by air from historic city of Peshawar.

    Alexander of Greece marched through this valley in 327 B.C, and left behind traces of Greek heritage, which can still be seen.

    Chitral District is bounded on the north, south and the west by Afghanistan and is separated from the Soviet Union by a narrow strip of Wakhan, a province of Afghanistan and from China by Hunza area. It lies between latitude 35 51 N and longitude 71 47’E.

    Area And Elevation
    Area: 14504 square meters (5,600 square miles).
    Elevation: 1278-7700 meters (3700-25264 feet).

    Climate
    Summers are generally pleasant but the winters are extremely cold. Chitral has unpredictable during spring with frequent rains and snowfall. Autumn is pleasant with mild temperatures.

    Tourist Season
    Ideal time for visiting Chitral is from June to September.

    Population
    1,59,230

    Majority of the people are Muslims. The only non-Muslim ethnic minority in the Chitral valley are the Kafir Kalash. Numbering about 2,500 to 3,000 they inhabit Birir, Bumburet and Rambur valleys in the south of Chitral. Their life style is characterized by their own ancient and religion.

    Languages
    The local dialect is ‘Khowar’ (Chitrali). Urdu is understood by a large number of people while Pushto is spoken and understood in Chitral and Drosh.

    Costumes
    The women wear ‘shalwar-kameez’ (long shirts with baggy trousers) and ‘dupattas’ (flimsy scarves draped round the Shoulders).

    In winter the man wear ‘shuqa’, loose ,long woolen gowns with long sleeves. The popular headdress is ‘pakol’ which is also of woolen material.

    The Kalash men distinguish themselves from the non-Kalash by wearing Chitral woolen hats to which they add feathers or little metal bells. Traditional dress, reserved for blue, very simple with a hole cut out for the neck. The wear long woolen belts and their shoes are often of goat-skins, usually rigged directly to the feet and laced with woolen or leather thongs.

    The Kalash women wear black gowns of coarse cotton in summer and handspun wool dyed black in winter. They also wear a picturesque headgear, which weighs between three and four pounds. It is made of woolen black material encrusted with cowry shells, buttons and crowned with a large coloured feather.

    What To See
    (All distance are given from Chitral).

    Chitral Valley
    Elevation: 1518meters (4,980 feet).

    The picturesque Chitral town lies on the Chitral River. Worth seeing is the Shahi Masjid (Grand Mosque) against the backdrop of Trichmir peak 7700 meters (25,264 feet), ex-ruler’s fort and the local style of Khowar houses of the friendly locals. Also worth exploring is the fascinating bazaar, which offers a host of handcrafted treasures.

    Chitral is famous for its polo tournaments, held from April to July and September to October.

    Kalash Valley
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Elevation: 1670-2309 meters (5,476-7,576 feet).
    Distance: 32-36km. (20-22 miles) south of Chitral.
    By jeep: 2 ½ hours

    These are a group of three small valleys: Brir, Bumburet and Rambur. Brir lies at the southern most tip of Chitral at a distance of 34 km (21 miles) and is easily accessible by jeep-able road via Ayun. It is especially ideal for those not used to trekking. Bumburet, the largest and the most picturesque valley of the Kafir Kalash, is 36 km.(22 miles) from Chitral and is connected by a jeep-able road.

    Rambur is 32 km (20 miles) from Chitral, the road is jeep-able. Foreign tourists require permits for visiting the Kalash valleys. Permits are issued free of cost by the Deputy Commissioner, Chitral, Tel: 1. Foreign visitors have to pay a toll tax of Rs.10 per person while Re. 1.00 per person is charged from domestic tourists.

    These valleys have an alpine climate. The people inhabiting these valleys are the primitive pagan tribes of Pakistan, who are known as Kafir Kalash, which means the wearers of the black robes. Their origin is cloaked in controversy. A legend says that soldiers from the legions of the Macedonian conqueror, Alexander, settled in Chitral and are the progenitors of the Kalash.

    They live in small villages built on the hillsides near the banks of streams. Their houses are constructed of rough-hewn logs and are double storeyed because of the steepness of the slopes. Kalash are very lively people and are famous for their lively religious festivals namely: Chilimjusht (spring), Phool (September) and Chowas (from 21st December for a week). The Kalash love music and their instruments are drums and flutes. Their colorful dances impart a feeling of peace, joy and contentment. If you join them in their dance, they interpret it as a sign friendship and will open their hearts to you and reveal some of their mysteries, their joys and sorrows. You depart with a sense of poignancy and nostalgia for these beautiful children of nature and nagging fear that all the sweetness and innocence may soon be swept away forever by the power and intolerance that often hide themselves under the banner of progress.

    Garam Chashma (Hot Springs)
    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    Elevation: 1859 meters (6,100) feet). Distance:45 km, (28 miles) north-west of Chitral. By jeep: hours.

    This un-spoilt enchanting valley of orchards, verdant fields and snow clad peaks is renowned for its boiling sulphur springs which are famous for healing effect on skin diseases, gout, rheumatism and chronic headaches. For the convenience of tourists “humans” (baths) have been constructed near the springs. Foreign tourists are requested to pay a toll tax of Rs.5.00 per person.

    BIRMOGHALASHT
    Elevation: 2743 meters (9,000 feet). Distance: 15 km (9 miles). Worth visiting is the fairy-tale summer palace of the Ex-Ruler perched at a height of 2743 meters (9,000) feet. It offers awe-inspiring views of Trichmir and Panoramic vistas of valleys below. The fort is approachable on foot only.

    WHAT TO DO
    Chitral is the dream-come true for lovers of mountaineering, trekking, hiking, camping, fishing and shooting. There are no facilities for hiring sports gear: tourist are advised to bring their own.

    MOUNTAINEERING
    The majestic Hindu Kush reigns supreme over the valley. The highest peak is the famous Trichmir, which soars 7700 meters (25,264 feet) high, and is a challenge to mountaineers. There are a number of other exciting peaks too-Isltornal, Banizom, Saraghar, Naushaq, Ghocharsor, Phal, Daspar and Don rising from 6096 meters to 7315 meters (20,000 to 24,000 feet). Only experienced mountaineering. In order to avoid disappointment, foreign tourists are advised to apply well in advance for permission from the Ministry of Tourism, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

    TREKKING AND HIKING
    Trekking and hiking are visitor’s favourite pastime. You can take your pick-You can either go by Jeep or Walk.

    CAMPING
    There are no regular camping sites, but tourists are always welcome by the hospitable locals to camp for short durations on their lands and lawns. Before camping, tourists are requested to please get the owner’s prior permission.

    FISHING
    The rivers in Chitral are teeming with fish, especially the Lotkuh River that is famous for trout. There are also trout hatcheries in Chitral and Bumburet.

    Angling is allowed during the season only i.e from April to September.
    Fishing permits are required, please contact the Fisheries Department.

    FLORA and FAUNA
    The hills in the south are covered with pine, ‘deodar’ and fir forests, while the valleys are rich in mulberries, apricots, apples pears, grapes, pomegranates and melons. There are also Chinar and walnut trees in this area. Big game including the world renowned snow leopard (panthers) markhor, deer, ibex, urial, wolves, black bear and many more are found in the mountains, which are protected by the wildlife branch of the Forest Department. Among the famous birds are Chikor, ram Chikor and murgh Zarreen.

    SHOOTING
    There is an abundance of wildlife. In order to curb extinction, limited shooting is allowed during the specified season. Shooting of world famous snow leopard (panther), Murgh Zarreen (golden peasant) and musk deer is banned. Chitral Gol (stream) has been declared a wild life sanctuary and therefore no shooting is allowed in the area. Permits for limited shooting are required, please contact: District Forest Officer, Chitral.

    HOW TO GET THERE

    BY AIR
    P.I.A. operates daily flights (subject to weather conditions) between Peshawar and Chitral. The flying time is 50 minutes and the fare is Rs 120.00 for one way. Peshawar can be reached by air, rail and road form all the major cities of Pakistan. For enquiries in Chitral, please contact the PIA Booking office, Main Bazaar, Chitral.

    BY ROAD
    Chitral is accessible from Peshawar by the 365.1/4 km (227) miles) long partly metalled and partly gravel-top jeep-able road, which goes via Malakand, Director and the 3118 meters (10,230 feet) high Lowari Pass which is open during the summer months only, i.e from June to the end of October and may even close earlier due to an early snowfall. Chitral can also be reached from Gilgit via 3810 meters (12,500 feet) high Shandur Pass. Permits are required, please contact Deputy Commissioner, Chitral, Tel: 1.

    Some distance are given below:
    Distances Driving time

    Peshawar-Chitral 3651/4 km. By jeep-12 hours.
    (via Malakand-Director- (227 miles)
    Lowari Pass)

    15 hours by jeep 250 km.
    Gilgit-Chitral 406km. (155 miles) from Gilgit to
    (252 miles) Shandur + 5 hours on horse- back or on foot.

    40 ¼ km.(25 miles) from Shandur to Mastuj+7 hours
    by jeep 116 km (72 miiles
    from Mastuj to Chitral.

    COMMUNICATIONS
    Telegraph, Telephone and Postal service

    Telegraph, telephone and postal services contact Chitral with the rest of Pakistan.

    WHERE TO STAY
    There are two modest hotels, namely Chitral Mountain Inn and Trichmir View Hotel and a PTDC Motel in Chitral. The average room rent ranges between Rs. 100-400. in Chitral, Dorsh , Gahiret, Ayun, Brire, Bumburet and Garam Chashma, the rest-houses are furnished and equipped with crockery, cutlery and cooking facilities. Tourists are advised to carry their own supply of canned foods and other provisions. The ‘chowkidar’ (watchman) will do the cooking on payment. Visitors must also have there is no electricity except in Chitral and Dorsh. The remaining of the rest-houses are unfurnished and visitors must carry in addition to the above, their own sleeping bags or folding beds. To avoid disappointment it is advisable to reserve accommodation well in advance.

    WHAT TO EAT

    Pakistani and continental dishes are served in the hotels in Chitral. These are plenty of fruits, especially from June to October, apricots, plums, mulberries, apples, figs, pears, watermelons and pomegranates etc.

    WHAT TO BUY
    Chitral is famous for its soft hand-woven woolen material known as ‘Shu”, which is available in white black, gray and neutral colours. The best variety is made in Mogh in Lotkuh. The price ranges from Rs.20.00 to Rs. 60.00 per meter.

    Intricately embroidered woolen gowns known as ‘chughas’ are also very popular. Visitor’s favourite bargains also include colorful woolen rugs, exquisite embroidered household linen, bags, belts, eatch straps, shirt collars, musical instruments such as sitars, antique weapons, string bows and precious gems.

    Karakoram Highway

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

    A new all-weather road, the Karakoram Highway connecting Rawalpindi/Islamabad with China’s Xinjiang Province runs through the Northern Areas.

    The 805 km. dual carriage metalled road starts from Havelian 100 km. From Islamabad and winds through Abbottabad-Mansehra-Thakot-Besham-Pattan-Sazin-Ghils-Gilgit-Hunza to the Chinese Frontier across the 4,733 metres high Khunjerab Pass. The road built by the Pakistan Army engineers in association with the Chinese experts and technicians has been described as a marvel of civil engineering and even as “The Eighth Wonder of the World”. Completed in 15 years, it has been forced through some of the world’s toughest terrain. The road not only opens up the Northern Areas to trade and travel but also provides easy access to hitherto closed regions, connected by jeep or goat tracks.

    Doctor Rashid Kazmi
    Kazmi House
    Toheed Colony Near PC Hotal
    PO-Jhangi Abbottabad Pakistan
    Cell=0092 300 9113675
    doctorkazmi@hotmail.com

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